Bullying, or bullying, is a phenomenon that occurs in educational environments and that occurs very often among adolescents. In an analysis of the profile of aggressor and victim, Serra-Negra, et al (2015) recognize four main types of bullying: physical, verbal, relational and indirect (which includes rumor). Other authors, such as McGuinness (2007) add "cyberbullying" as a category that deserves to be reviewed separately.
In this article we will focus specifically on describing the manifestations, consequences and interventions of verbal bullying , beginning with a definition of bullying and its main characteristics.
Beyond the victim and the victimizer
The term "bullying" is the neologism that refers to bullying. Its meaning translated into Spanish is "personal intimidation" and comes from the English "bully", which means "overwhelm with threats". Likewise, "bully" can refer to the person who is cruelly or intentionally aggressive towards others.
As a present and recurrent phenomenon in the educational context , bullying has been specially studied since the 70s, initially in the Nordic countries after reports of teen suicide related to school bullying were reported.
Causes of bullying and its social components
Bullying is a social phenomenon, while it takes place in groups that are relatively permanent. One of its main characteristics is that the victim has little chance of avoiding the perpetrators , not only because the phenomenon is often kept invisible, but because the attacks are generally supported by the other members of the group.
Therefore, bullying is also a category of aggressive behavior where there is an ambivalence of power that allows that act to be repeated in groups and periodically. It is not only a violent relationship that is established from an aggressor to a victim, but it is a type of violence that occurs in the context of a group, where, through determined roles, members can reinforce the violent behavior of the victim. other members .
What is verbal bullying and how does it manifest?
According to McGuiness (2007), different investigations have shown that verbal bullying is the most frequent method of bullying. It happens in similar ratios between boys and girls, and insults are characterized mainly by racial and gender components. Likewise, the most common methods of verbal bullying are slander , that is, false and malicious statements, teasing and calling the person with derogatory or violent nicknames.
Emotional consequences of these attacks
According to many sites, bullying can generate significant emotional imbalances, which if maintained in the medium and term, can have very negative and differential consequences for the victim and the aggressors. In this sense, the expression and emotional regulation is one of the possible predictors of the situation of bullying.
Likewise, other consequences of bullying in the person who is a victim, and which are in turn indicators of victimization, are the following:
· Dropout or school failure.
· Report excessive feelings of guilt.
· Inhibition in communication and socialization.
· Repetitive psychosomatic diseases.
· A negative assessment of oneself
Prevention and intervention strategies
Consider bullying as a phenomenon not only psychological but social is important because it allows us to analyze dynamics and components that sometimes go unnoticed, and that nevertheless lay the foundations in which violent interaction is generated and reproduced .
Taking the above into consideration is an essential element in the planning of intervention strategies and prevention of bullying, both at the family level and in the educational environment.
1. In the educational environment
Different studies show that there is less psychosocial adjustment and a low level of empathy among group members who attack others (Elipe, Ortega, Hunter, et al, 2012). In this sense, it is important that the educational environment reinforces empathy, and for this, it is necessary to know and work with the recognition schemes that exist among the different members. From there, it is necessary to facilitate environments of coexistence free of stereotypes and harassment.
2. In the family environment Prevention and intervention
strategies in the family environment depend to a great extent on the dynamics generated by adults. In this sense, it is important to start with a detection of the indicators of bullying that are present at the verbal level , and then to explore what are the background patterns that are causing the adolescent to have a derogatory perception of the characteristics of the partner he assaults. . Intervening by modifying such schemes is important to counteract the tendency to aggression.
This blog is written by Glenn Tanner who is a freelance writer. Glenn started writer when he was 20 and did many blogs regarding mental health. After working for an academic source called Best coursework writers UK he helped many student with their grades. Today he runs his one blogging platform and you can follow him on twitter