( authors note: The following is a story, historically documented in a journal recording of my great-great-great-great grandmother Bartheny Lanham, born in County Cork, Ireland and came to America to marry a man named Finney Simpson, a self-taught veterinarian, settling in Western New York. Believe it or not, each time I have read the journal of the dear little Irish grannie, I dream of her as though she and I are seated at the kitchen table having a sip of Irish whiskey while she puffs on her tiny corn cob pipe. This, then is my Grannie B.'s story as the Narrator in her own hand with apologizes for the dialect but have made the translation for the ease of the reader)
Grannie B., Narrator
"De interest whaich de warrld is takin' in al' whaich relates ter de 'istory av our native americans, an' de greediness whaich is manifest in de devourin' av sensational stories published whaich glamorize falsely, fillin' a child’s mind an' their imaginashuns wi' stories av wild indian life on de plains an' borders, withoyt regard ter de truthfulness, cannot but… be 'armful; an' therefore dis scribe, after tree years' av annotated experience on de plains, feels desirous av givin' youthful minds a more true so 'tis 'istory av de red paddy an' 'is daily activity in de camps av our forests. thus, de true so 'tis stories 'ill teach de laddies, in time ter cum, de original race whaich once dominated dis continent; especially before de white race manifestly marked dem for exterminashun... destroyin' de source av life whaich existed on 'unting-grounds granted ter de native american by treaties banjacked for de outright possession av de united states america in each an' every executed treaty."
(The interest which the world is taking in all which relates to the history of our Native Americans, and the greediness which is manifest in the devouring of sensational stories published which glamorize falsely, filling a child’s mind and their imaginations with stories of wild Indian life on the plains and borders, without regard to the truthfulness, cannot but… be harmful; and therefore this scribe, after three years' of annotated experience on the plains, feels desirous of giving youthful minds a more true history of the red man and his daily activity in the camps of our forests. Thus, the true stories will teach the children, in time to come, the original race which once dominated this continent; especially before the white race manifestly marked them for extermination... destroying the source of life which existed on hunting-grounds granted to the Native American by treaties broken for the outright possession of the United States America in each and every executed treaty.)
(Unlike the extermination of an estimated five million Jews during the mid- twentieth century who went gently into their good-night, the Native American fought to the end, experiencing the total brutality of the psychopath who murders mercilessly to get what they want, and thus…A Portrait of Mass Murder.) Kipling Keats de Magi
Grannie B., Narrator
“so 'oy are we supposed ter nu de rights an' wrongs av de indians in order dat de truth can be known aboyt de way de indian befriended de white tren, savin' dem from starvashun in de first brutal winter av pionare life whaen de mayflower came ter dees shores.” “as de writer, oi propose nigh, only a 'istory av indians since oi began ter know de "six nations" in western new york. since den, dees 'av dwindled down ter a 'andful, an' chucker not nigh exist in their separate tribal relashuns, but 'avin' been forced ter assimilate, far away from de bonny lakes they once inhabited."
(“So how are we supposed to know the RIGHTS and WRONGS of the Indians in order that the truth can be known about the way the Indian befriended the white men, saving them from starvation in the first brutal winter of pioneer life when the Mayflower came to these shores.”
“As the writer, I propose now, only a history of Indians since I began to
know the "Six Nations" in Western New York. Since then, these have dwindled down to a handful, and do not now exist in their separate tribal relations, but having been forced to assimilate, far away from the beautiful lakes they once inhabited.")
“SO WHERE DID THE INDIANS COME FROM, YOU ASK?”
“the origin av de native american 'as flummoxed de wisest 'eads, an' dis lonely scribe most av al'. de most plausable theory seems ter be dat they are wan av de lost tribes av israel; dat they crossed a narrow natural bridge from de confines av asia, an' dat their tradishuns, so'tiz said, go far ter prove it.” “i 'ad 'eard for instance, dat de sioux tell us dat they were, many moons ago, set upon by a race larger in number than they, an' were driven from de norn in deadly fear, till they came ter de banks av de norn platte, an' findin' de river swollen up ter its banks, they were stopped dare, wi' al' their weemen, laddies, an' 'orses. de enemy wus pursuin', an' their 'earts gru white wi' fear. they made an offerin' ter de deadly spirit, an' yer man blew a wind into de water, so as ter open a patt on de scratcher av de river, an' they al' went over in safety, an' de waters, closin' up, lef their enemies on de other side."
(“The origin of the Native American has puzzled the wisest heads, and this lonely scribe most of all. The most plausible theory seems to be that they are one of the lost tribes of Israel; that they crossed a narrow natural bridge from the confines of Asia, and that their traditions, it is said, go far to prove it.”
“I had heard for instance, that the Sioux tell us that they were, many moons ago, set upon by a race larger in number than they, and were driven from the north in great fear, till they came to the banks of the North Platte, and finding the river swollen up to its banks, they were stopped there, with all their women, children, and horses. The enemy was pursuing, and their hearts grew white with fear. They made an offering to the Great Spirit, and he blew a wind into the water, so as to open a path on the bed of the river, and they all went over in safety, and the waters, closing up, left their enemies on the other side.")
(“So, is it, probable, that this legend is derived from a tradition of their forefathers, coming down to them from the passing of the children of Israel through the Red Sea?”)Kipling Keats de Magi
“elias boudinot, many years ago, a minister in vermont, published books ter show dat de american indians were a porshun av de lost tribes, from resemblances between their religious customs an' dohs av de israelites. lay-ra still, a converted jew named simon, undertuk ter identify de ancient south american races, mexicans, peruvians, etc., as descendants av ancient israel, from similarity av language an' av civil an' religious customs. dees authors 'av taken as their starting-point de resolushun whaich, esdras informs us (in de apocrypha), de cock an' 'en tribes tuk after bein' first placed in de cities av de medes, viz., dat they wud leave de multitude av de 'eathen an' go into a lan' wherein never mankind dwelt, dat they might dare keep de cock an' 'en commandments given ter abraham by god; an' they suppose dat, in pursuance av dis resolushun, de tribes continued in a northeasterly direcshun 'til they came ter behrin' straits, whaich they crossed, an' set foot on dis continent, spreadin' over it from norn ter south, 'til, at de discovery av it by columbus, they 'ad peopled every part. it must be admitted dat dis theory is pure plausable, an' dat if our indians are not de descendants av de lost tribes av israel, they show by their tradishuns an' customs a knowledge av de ancient religion, such as callin' de deadly spirit yo-he-wah, de jehovah av de scriptures, an' in many festivals correspondin' ter de mosaic law."
De country ter whaich de cock an' 'en tribes, in a journey av a year an' a 'alf, wud arrive, from de river euphrates, east, wud be somewhere adjoinin' tartary, an' intercourse between de two races wud easily lead ter de adopshun av de religious ideas an' customs av de wan by de other.”
(“Elias Boudinot, many years ago, a minister in Vermont, published books to show that the American Indians were a portion of the lost tribes, from resemblances between their religious customs and those of the Israelites. Later still, a converted Jew named Simon, undertook to identify the ancient South American races, Mexicans, Peruvians, etc., as descendants of ancient Israel, from similarity of language and of civil and religious customs. These authors have taken as their starting-point the resolution which, Esdras informs us (in the Apocrypha), the ten tribes took after being first placed in the cities of the Medes, viz., that they would leave the multitude of the heathen and go into a land wherein never mankind dwelt, that they might there keep the ten commandments given to Abraham by God; and they suppose that, in pursuance of this resolution, the tribes continued in a northeasterly direction until they came to Behring Straits, which they crossed, and set foot on this continent, spreading over it from north to south, until, at the discovery of it by Columbus, they had peopled every part.
It must be admitted that this theory is very plausible, and that if our Indians are not the descendants of the lost tribes of Israel, they show by their traditions and customs a knowledge of the ancient religion, such as calling the Great Spirit Yo-he-wah, the Jehovah of the Scriptures, and in many festivals corresponding to the Mosaic law."
The country to which the ten tribes, in a journey of a year and a half, would arrive, from the river Euphrates, east, would be somewhere adjoining Tartary, and intercourse between the two races would easily lead to the adoption of the religious ideas and customs of the one by the other.”
“I know,” interjected the writer, “That the gypsy tribes came from Tartary, and in my discussions with these wandering people, I found they had a custom somewhat like our Indians' practice, in moving from place to place. For instance, the gypsies, when they leave a part of their company to follow them, fix leaves in such wise as to direct their friends to follow in their course. This is called "_patteran_" in Romany or gypsy language. And the Indian cuts a notch in a tree as he passes through a forest, or places stones in the plains in such a way as to show in what direction he has gone. An officer saw a large stone, upon which an Indian had drawn the figure of a soldier on horseback, to indicate to others which way the soldiers had gone.”
“an' de likeness ter de bable is quite similar ter de origin av evil. de indians 'av a tradishun 'anded down in whaich de deadly spirit said they might ayte av al' [the fruit] except de apple or thus vis-a-vie [the animals] yer man 'ad made, except de beaver. but sum brutal indians went an' killed a beaver, (an' eve ate de apple) an' de deadly spirit wus cheesed aff an' said they must al' die. but after a while yer man became willin' dat indians shud kill an' ayte dem, so de beaver is 'unted for 'is buff, an' 'is meat is eaten as often as yer man suffers 'imself ter be caught.”
(“And the likeness to the bible is quite similar to the Origin of Evil. The Indians have a tradition handed down in which the Great Spirit said they might eat of all [the fruit] except the apple or thus vis-a-vie [the animals] he had made, except the beaver. But some bad Indians went and killed a beaver, (and Eve ate the apple) and the Great Spirit was angry and said they must all die. But after a while he became willing that Indians should kill and eat them, so the beaver is hunted for his skin, and his meat is eaten as often as he suffers himself to be caught.”)
DESPOILING THE GRAVE OF AN OLD ONONDAGA CHIEF.
“There is a legend about a great man named On-on-da-ga, an Indian chief, who died about the year 1830, near Elbridge, a town lying north of Auburn, in the State of New York. This Indian belonged to the Onondagas, one of the tribes called "the Six Nations of the IROQUOIS" (E-ro-kwa), a confederacy consisting of the MOHAWKS, ONEIDAS, SENECAS, CAYUGAS, ONONDAGAS, and TUSCARORAS or CHIPPEWAS. I was a lad at the time of this chief's death, having my home in Auburn, New York, where my father was the physician and surgeon to the State prison. My father had a cousin, who was also a doctor and surgeon, a man of stalwart frame, raised in Vermont, named Cogswell. He was proud of his skill in surgery, and devoted to the science. He had learned of the death of the Onondaga chief, and conceived the idea of getting the body out of the grave for the purpose of dissecting the old fellow,--that is, of cutting him up and preserving his bones to hang upon the walls of his office; of course, there was only one way of doing it, and that was by stealing the body under cover of night, as the Indians are very superstitious and careful about the graves of their dead. You know they place all the trappings of the dead--his bow and arrows, tomahawk and wampum--in the grave, as they think he will need them to hunt and supply his needs on his journey to the happy hunting-grounds. They place food and tobacco, with other things, at the burial site which is above ground and easily accessible..
Dr. Cogswell took two men one night, with a wagon, and as the distance was only twelve miles, they performed the journey and got back safely before daylight, depositing the body of the Indian in a barn belonging to a Mr. Hopkins, in the north part of the town. It was soon noised about town what they had done, and there lived a man there who threatened to go and inform the tribe of the despoiling of the chief's grave, unless he was paid thirty dollars to keep silence. The doctor, being a bold, courageous man, refused to comply with a request he had no right to make, because it was an attempt to "levy black mail," as it is called.
Sure enough, he kept his word, and told the Onondagas, who were living between Elbridge and Syracuse. They were very much exasperated when they heard what had been done, and threatened vengeance on the town where the dead chief lay.
The tribe was soon called together, and a march was planned to go up to Auburn by the way of Skaneateles Lake,--a beautiful sheet of water lying six miles east of Auburn. They encamped in the pine woods,--a range called the "pine ridge,"--half-way between the two villages, and sent a few of the tribe into Auburn for the purpose of trading off the baskets they had made for powder and shot; but the real purpose they had in view was to find out just where the body was (deposited in the barn of Mr. Josiah Hopkins), intending to set fire to the barn and burn the town, rescuing the dead chief at the same time.
For several days the town was greatly excited, and every fireside at night was surrounded with anxious faces; the children listening with greedy ears to narratives of Indian cruelties perpetrated during the war with the English about Canada, in 1812; and I remember how it was told of a cruel Indian named Philip, that he would seize little babes from their mothers' arms and dash out their brains against the wall! No wonder we dreamed horrid dreams of the dusky faces every night.
At that time the military did not amount to much. There was a company of citizen soldiers there, called the "AUBURN GUARDS," numbering about forty men, with a captain whose name I forget, but who became suddenly seized with the idea of his unfitness to defend the town against the threatened Indian invasion, and did the wisest thing he could, and resigned his commission on a plea of "_sudden indisposition_." The doctor walked the street as bold as a lion, but acting also with the shrewd cunning of the fox. And now, my young friends, instead of weaving a bloody romance in the style of the "Dime Novels," depicting the terrible massacre, which might have happened, with so great a wrong to provoke the hostility of the poor Indians, I am about to tell you how the town was saved, and how the doctor outwitted them. If you pause here, and guess, I think you will be far from the mark in reaching the shrewdness of the surgeon, who had not been bred among the hills of old Vermont for nothing.
As I said, at Auburn there is a State prison, and when the convicts die, their bodies, unless claimed by relatives or friends within twenty-four hours after death, are at the disposal of the surgeon for dissection. As good luck would have it, a Negro convict died at the time of our story; and the doctor conceived the idea of getting out of his difficulty by transferring the dead body of the negro Jim to the despoiled empty grave of Onondaga! This done, he easily persuaded the Indians to go back and find the body of their chief all right: and so he succeeded in humbugging the Indians, while the bones of old Onondaga were duly prepared and hung up to show students how Indians and all men are made of bone and muscle. The doctor thought he had done a good thing; but when I went into the office and saw the horrid skull grinning at me, I was thankful that the spirit of old Onondaga could not say of me, "You did it!"
“The most notable av de chiefs belongin' ter de six nashuns were 'iawatha, thayendanega (or brant, 'is Sasanach name), sagoyewatha, or red tennis racket,--the most intelligent av de chiefs, an' who is said ter 'av been de uncle av general parker, a full-blud chippewa, an' at wan time indian commissioner at washington. (parker served as an aide av general grant durin' de war. in early life, yer man wus a pupil at de normal school, in albany; an' wus reckoned quite proficient in music by prof. bowen.) most av dees tribes, inhabitin' de country borderin' on de mohawk river, onondaga lake, skaneateles, owasco, cayuga, seneca, ontario, an' erie, migrated at an early day ter green bay, an' ter de straits av mackinaw. as remnants av de onondagas were passin' through auburn, they often slept on de floor av our kitchen, an' they never stole anythin' or did us any 'arm. wan day, they were passin' de american 'otel, an', as usual, begged a few sixpences av al' they met.” a gentleman sittin' on de porch said ter wan av dem, "no, you'll spend it for whisky." "oh, naw," yer man replied; "give it ter me struggle an' strife for she's a methodist woman_!"
(“The most notable of the chiefs belonging to the Six Nations were Hiawatha, Thayendanega (or Brant, his English name), Sagoyewatha, or Red Jacket,--the most intelligent of the chiefs, and who is said to have been the uncle of General Parker, a full-blood Chippewa, and at one time Indian Commissioner at Washington. (Parker served as an aide of General Grant during the war. In early life, he was a pupil at the Normal school, in Albany; and was reckoned quite proficient in music by Prof. Bowen.)
Most of these tribes, inhabiting the country bordering on the Mohawk River, Onondaga Lake, Skaneateles, Owasco, Cayuga, Seneca, Ontario, and Erie, migrated at an early day to Green Bay, and to the Straits of Mackinaw. As remnants of the Onondagas were passing through Auburn, they often slept on the floor of our kitchen, and they never stole anything or did us any harm. One day, they were passing the American Hotel, and, as usual, begged a few sixpences of all they met.”
A gentleman sitting on the porch said to one of them, "No, you'll spend
it for whisky."
"Oh, no," he replied; "give it to my wife for she's a Methodist woman_!")
Grannie B. continuing,
“i met a tribe av chippewa’s at marquette, a short time since, on lake superior, whither they 'ad migrated from green bay. _an-ges-ta_, de chief, wus a tall, noble-lookin' fella. yer man wanted de church ter 'elp 'is people, who were pure stoney broke. angesta said, "we lived in green bay a deadly while, but whaen oi looked into our cabins an' saw so many av dem empty, an' into de graveyard, an' counted more graves than we 'ad livin', me 'eart wus sad, an' oi went away farther toward de settin' sun!"
(“I met a tribe of Chippewa’s at Marquette, a short time since, on Lake Superior, whither they had migrated from Green Bay. _An-ges-ta_, the chief, was a tall, noble-looking fellow. He wanted the church to help his people, who were very poor.
Angesta said, "We lived in Green Bay a great while, but when I looked into our cabins and saw so many of them empty, and into the graveyard, and counted more graves than we had living, my heart was sad, and I went away farther toward the setting sun!")
Grannie B. continuing,
“he made an eloquent speech ter de prince av wales on 'is visit ter de west, an' it wus pronounced a gran' piece av natural oratory. a few remnants av de new york tribes are livin' not far from buffalo, on a reservashun, wha they cultivate farms an' 'av schools an' churches. such were de oneidas, onondagas, cayugas, senecas, mohawks, an' chippewas. only wan ban' is lef in new york state nigh, dat av de onondagas.”
(“He made an eloquent speech to the Prince of Wales on his visit to the West, and it was pronounced a fine piece of natural oratory. A few remnants of the New York tribes are living not far from Buffalo, on a reservation, where they cultivate farms and have schools and churches. Such were the Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, Senecas, Mohawks, and Chippewas. Only one band is left in New York State now, that of the Onondagas.”)
“The present generation of grown people have read with delight the
beautiful novels of J. Fenimore Cooper, Esq., but they have been
disappointed in not finding any living examples of his noble heroes. As
a general thing, the Indian of our day is an untidy lord of the soil,
over which he roams unfettered by any laws of society, and often--in
his wild state--not controlled by its decencies or in possession of its
privileges. But I think this is the fault of Christians more interested
in foreign pagans, while neglecting these heathen at our own doors.
THE FIDELITY OF AN INDIAN CHIEF.
“Early in de settlement av de western part av new york, oi wus livin' in whitesboro', four miles west av utica. al' raun wus an unbroken forest av beech, maple, an' other trees, 'eld by wild tribes of indians, who 'ad been for ever so long owners av de muk, feelin' 'oy much oi wus at their mercy in me lonely place, oi wus anxious ter keep on gran' terms wi' dem, an' secure their friendship in return. many av de chiefs 'ad 'eard av me friendly ways, an' came ter clap me, carryin' presents, cos av de gifts oi 'ad sent them; but oi wus much troubled dat an auld chief av de tribe, 'avin' deadly influence with 'is people, 'ad never cum ter clap me, or sent me any presents, or shown any signs av failte. after a while oi made up 'is mind to go an' clap de sachem in 'is wigwam, an' thus secure a friendship whaich oi might rely on in case av any difficulty. me family wus wee,--only a bottle av water, a widow, an' 'er only wane, a gran' fella, foive years auld. so, wan day oi went ter pay de chief a visit, takin' de widow an' 'er son along wi' me. oi foun' 'imself seated at de dure av 'is tent, enjoyin' a nice breeze av a gran' summer's mornin', an' wus welcomed by de auld chief wi' kind manners an' de ward "sago," meanin', "how chucker yer chucker?" oi presented me bottle av water an' 'er wee fella ter de auld chief, an' said they 'ad cum ter live in 'is country; they were anxious ter live in peace wi' dem, an' introduce among dem de arts av civilizashun.
(Judge Waiting now enters and relates the following story to Grannie B. about an Oneida chief :
“Early in the settlement of the western part of New York, I was
living in Whitesboro', four miles west of Utica. All around was an
unbroken forest of beech, maple, and other trees, held by wild tribes
of Indians, who had been for ever so long owners of the soil, feeling how much I was at their mercy in my lonely place, I was anxious to keep on good terms with them, and secure their friendship in return.
Many of the chiefs had heard of my friendly ways, and came to see me,
carrying presents, because of the gifts I had sent them; but I was
much troubled that an old chief of the tribe, having great influence
with his people, had never come to see me, or sent me any presents,
or shown any signs of welcome. After a while I made up his mind
to go and see the sachem in his wigwam, and thus secure a friendship which I might rely on in case of any difficulty. My family was small,--only
a daughter, a widow, and her only child, a fine boy, five years old.
So, one day I went to pay the chief a visit, taking the widow and her
son along with me. I found him seated at the door of his tent,
enjoying a nice breeze of a fine summer's morning, and was welcomed by the old chief with kind manners and the word "Sago," meaning, "How do you do?" I presented my daughter and her little boy to the old chief, and said they had come to live in his country; they were anxious to live in peace with them, and introduce among them the arts of civilization.
Listening to these words, the chief said,--
"Brother, you ask much and promise much; what pledge can you give of your good faith?"
"The honor of a man who never knew deceit."
_Sachem._--"The white man's word may be good to the white man, yet
it is but wind when spoken to the Indian."
_Judge._--"I have put my life into your hands by coming hither; is
not this a proof of my good intentions? I have trusted the Indian, and
I will not believe that he will abuse or betray my trust."
"So much is well," said the chief; "the Indian repays trust with trust:
if you will hurt him, he will hurt you. But I must have a pledge. Leave
this boy with me in my wigwam, and I will bring him back to you in
three days with my answer."
If an arrow had pierced the bosom of the young mother, she could not
have felt a sharper pang than that which the Indian's proposal had
She flew towards her boy, who stood beside the chief looking into his
face with pleased and innocent wonder, and, snatching him to her arms,
would have rushed away with him.
A gloomy frown came over the sachem's brow, and he remained silent.
I knew that all their lives depended upon a right action at once; and following my daughter, who was retreating with her child into the woods,
I said to her, "Stay, stay, my daughter; bring back the child, I beg of you! I would not risk a hair of his head, for he is as dear to me as to you,--but, my child, he must remain with the chief! God will watch over him, and he will be as safe in the sachem's wigwam as in your arms beneath your own roof."
She yielded, and her darling boy was left; but who can tell the agony of the mother's heart during the following days? Every night she awoke from her sleep, seeming to hear the screams of her child calling upon its mother for help. How slowly and heavily passed the hours away. But at last the third day came. The morning waned away, and the afternoon was far advanced, yet the chief came not. There was sorrow over the whole home, and the mother, pale and silent, walked her room in despair. I was filled with anxious doubts and fears, looked through the opening in the forest towards the sachem's abode.
At last, as the rays of the setting sun were thrown upon the tops of
the tall trees around, the eagle feathers of the chief were seen
dancing above the bushes in the distance. He came rapidly, and the
little boy was at his side. He was gaily attired as a young chief: his
feet dressed in moccasins, a fine beaver-skin thrown over his
shoulders, and eagle's feathers stuck in his hair. He was laughing and
gay, and so proud of his honors that he seemed two inches taller than
before. He was soon clasped in his mother's arms, and in that brief
moment of joy she seemed to pass from death to life.
"The white man has conquered!" said the chief; "hereafter let us be
friends. You have trusted the Indian; he will repay you with confidence
And he was true to his word. We lived many years, laying there
the foundation of that flourishing community which has spread over a
wide extent of western New York.
BIG THUNDER--A WINNEBAGO CHIEF.
“the winnebago indians migrated from belvidere, illinois, on de kish-wau-kie river, ter minnesota, an' thence ter de omaha reservashun, in nebraska. at belvidere, dare is a moun' on whaich big thunder whaen yer man got away wus set up, 'is body supported by posts driven in de groun'. dis wus done at 'is dyin' request, an' in accord wi' 'is prophecy ter 'is tribe: "that dare wus ter be a deadly an' whitie scrap between de white an' red tren. an' whaen de red tren were aboyt ter be beaten in de battle, yer man wud cum ter life again, an' risin' up wi' a call, wud lead 'is people ter victory!" 'is tribe wud visit de spot once a year, wha 'is body wus dryin' away, an' leave tobacco as an offering; an' de white young tren wud surely go dare soon after an' stow de plugs away in their capacious pockets. as de town became settled, visitors wud shenanagans aff de bones as mementos av de auld chief. after they were al' gone, sum wags wud place de bones av sum dead sheep for relic-hunters ter peck up an' shenanagans 'um as de bones av a noble chief.
(“The Winnebago Indians migrated from Belvidere, Illinois, on the
Kish-wau-kie River, to Minnesota, and thence to the Omaha reservation, in Nebraska. At Belvidere, there is a mound on which Big Thunder when he died was set up, his body supported by posts driven in the ground. This was done at his dying request, and in accord with his prophecy to his tribe: "That there was to be a great and terrible fight between the white and red men. And when the red men were about to be beaten in the battle, he would come to life again, and rising up with a shout, would lead his people to victory!" His tribe would visit the spot once a year, where his body was drying away, and leave tobacco as an offering; and the white young men would surely go there soon after and stow the plugs away in their capacious pockets. As the town became settled, visitors would carry off the bones as mementos of the old chief. After they were all gone, some wags would place the bones of some dead sheep for relic-hunters to pick up and carry home as the bones of a noble chief.)
“i 'av seen de stakes, whaich wus al' dat remained av big thunder, after yer man wus dried up an' blown away. de oneidas 'av a tradishun aboyt de deluge, whaich is pure singular. accordin' ter their scayle, an unlimited expanse av water covered de whole space nigh occupied by de warrld we live in. at dis time de whole 'uman family dwelt in a country situated in de upper regions av de air. everythin' needed for comfort an' pleasure wus foun'. de people did not nu waaat death wus, nor its attendant, sickness or disease; an' their minds were free from jealousy, 'atred, or revenge. at length it 'appened dat al' av dis wus changed, an' care an' trouble came ter dem. a certain youth wus seen ter withdraw 'imself from de circle av soshal amusements, an' yer man wandered away alone in de groves, as 'is favorite resort.
(“I have seen the stakes, which was all that remained of Big Thunder, after he was dried up and blown away. The Oneidas have a tradition about the deluge, which is very singular. According to their story, an unlimited expanse of water covered the whole space now occupied by the world we live in. At this time the whole human family dwelt in a country situated in the upper regions of the air. Everything needed for comfort and pleasure was found. The people did not know what death was, nor its attendant, sickness or disease; and their minds were free from jealousy, hatred, or revenge. At length it happened that all of this was changed, and care and trouble came to them. A certain youth was seen to withdraw himself from the circle of social amusements, and he wandered away alone in the groves, as his favorite resort.)
Care an' sorrow marked 'is countenance, an' 'is body, from long abstinence from grub, began ter make 'imself luk ter 'is lads loike a skeleton av a paddy. anxious looks cud not solve de mystery av 'is grief; an' by-and-by, weakened in body an' soul, yer man yielded ter 'is companions, an' promised ter disclose de cause av 'is trouble, on condishun dat they wud dig up by de roots a certain pine-tree, lay 'imself in 'is blanket by de edge av de 'ole, an' place 'is struggle an' strife by 'is side; at once al' 'ands were ready. de fatal tree wus taken up by de roots; in doin' whaich de earth wus opened, an' a passage made into de abyss below. de blanket wus spread by de 'ole; de youth lay upon it de struggle an' strife also (soon ter be a mother) tuk 'er sate by 'is side. de shower av savages, anxious ter nu de cause av such fierce quare an' unheard-of conduct, pressed close around; whaen, al' av a sudden, ter their 'orror an' surprise, yer man seized upon yer won an' thru 'er 'eadlong into de regions av darkness below! den, risin' from de groun', yer man towl de people dat yer man 'ad for sum time suspected dat 'is struggle an' strife wus untrue ter 'imself, an' so, 'avin' got rid av de cause av 'is trouble, yer man wud soon recover 'is 'ealth an' 'ard tack.
(Care and sorrow marked his countenance, and his body, from long abstinence from food, began to make him look to his friends like a skeleton of a man. Anxious looks could not solve the mystery of his grief; and by-and-by, weakened in body and soul, he yielded to his companions, and promised to disclose the cause of his trouble, on condition that they would dig up by the roots a certain pine-tree, lay him in his blanket by the edge of the hole, and place his wife by his side; at once all hands were ready. The fatal tree was taken up by the roots; in doing which the earth was opened, and a passage made into the abyss below. The blanket was spread by the hole; the youth lay upon it the wife also (soon to be a mother) took her seat by his side. The crowd, anxious to know the cause of such strange and unheard-of conduct, pressed close around; when, all of a sudden, to their horror and surprise, he seized upon the woman and threw her headlong into the regions of darkness below! Then, rising from the ground, he told the people that he had for some time suspected that his wife was untrue to him, and so, having got rid of the cause of his trouble, he would soon recover his health and spirits.)
Al' dohs amphibious animals whaich nigh inhabit dis warrld den roamed through de watery waste ter whaich yer won, in 'er fall, wus nigh 'astenin'. de loon first discovered 'er comin', an' called a council in 'aste ter prepare for 'er recepshun,--observin' dat de animal whaich approached wus a 'uman bein', an' dat earth wus necessary for its accommodashun. de first tin' ter be tart av wus, who shud support de burden? the sea-bear first presented 'imself for a trial av 'is strength. at once de other animals gathered roun' an' jumped upon 'is back; while de bear, unable ter bear up such a weight, sank beneath de water, an' wus by al' de shower av savages judged unequal ter support de weight av de earth. several others presented themselves, were tried, an' foun' wantin'. but last av al' came de turtle, modestly tenderin' 'is broad shell as de basis av de earth nigh ter be formed. de beasts den made a trial av 'is strength ter bear by 'eapin' themselves on 'is back, an' findin' by their united pressure they cud not sink 'imself below de surface, adjudged 'imself de 'onor av supportin' de warrld on 'is back.
(All those amphibious animals which now inhabit this world then roamed through the watery waste to which this woman, in her fall, was now hastening. The loon first discovered her coming, and called a council in haste to prepare for her reception,--observing that the animal which approached was a human being, and that earth was necessary for its accommodation. The first thing to be thought of was, who should support the burden?
The sea-bear first presented himself for a trial of his strength. At once the other animals gathered round and jumped upon his back; while the bear, unable to bear up such a weight, sank beneath the water, and was by all the crowd judged unequal to support the weight of the earth. Several others presented themselves, were tried, and found wanting. But last of all came the turtle, modestly tendering his broad shell as the basis of the earth now to be formed. The beasts then made a trial of his strength to bear by heaping themselves on his back, and finding by their united pressure they could not sink him below the surface, adjudged him the honor of supporting the world on his back.)
Thus, a foundashun bein' foun', de next subject av tart wus 'oy ter procure earth. several av de most expert divers plunged ter de 'ole av de sea an' came up dead; but de _mink_ at last though yer man shared de seem fate, broot up in 'is claws a wee quantity av dirt. dis wus placed on de back av de turtle. in de mean while yer won kept on fallin', till at last she alighted on de turtle's back. de earth 'ad already grown ter de size av a man's foot wha she fifty, wi' wan foot coverin' de other. by-and-by she 'ad room for both lempsor', an' wus able ter sit down. de earth continued ter expan', an' whaen its plain wus covered wi' green grass, an' streams ran, whaich poured into de ocean, she built 'er a gaff on de sea-shore. not long after, she 'ad a bottle av water, an' she lived on waaat gru naturally, till de wane wus grown ter be article. several av de animals wanted ter marry 'er, they bein' changed into de forms av young men; but de ma wud not consent, 'til de turtle offered 'imself as a beau, an' wus accepted. after she 'ad lain 'erself down ter sleep, de turtle placed two arrows on 'er body, in de shape av a cross: wan 'eaded wi' flint, de other wi' de rough bark av a tree. by-and-by she 'ad two sons, but got away 'erself.
(Thus, a foundation being found, the next subject of thought was how to procure earth. Several of the most expert divers plunged to the bottom of the sea and came up dead; but the _mink_ at last though he shared the same fate, brought up in his claws a small quantity of dirt. This was placed on the back of the turtle.
In the mean while the woman kept on falling, till at last she alighted on the turtle's back. The earth had already grown to the size of a man's foot where she stood, with one foot covering the other. By-and-by she had room for both feet, and was able to sit down. The earth continued to expand, and when its plain was covered with green grass, and streams ran, which poured into the ocean, she built her a house on the sea-shore. Not long after, she had a daughter, and she lived on what grew naturally, till the child was grown to be a woman. Several of the animals wanted to marry her, they being changed into the forms of young men; but the mother would not consent, until the turtle offered himself as a beau, and was accepted. After she had lain herself down to sleep, the turtle placed two arrows on her body, in the shape of a cross: one headed with flint, the other with the rough bark of a tree. By-and-by she had two sons, but died herself.)
De grandmother wus so cheesed aff at 'er death dat she thru de laddies into de sea. scarcely 'ad she reached 'er wigwam whaen de laddies 'ad overtaken 'er at de dure. she den tart best ter let dem live; an' dividin' de body av 'er bottle av water in two parts, she thru dem up toward de 'eavens, whaen wan became de sun, de other de moon. den day an' noight first began. de laddies soon gru up ter be tren, an' expert wi' bow an' arrows. de elder 'ad de arrow av de turtle, whaich wus pointed wi' flint; de younger 'ad de arrow pointed wi' bark. de first wus, by 'is temper an' skill an' success in 'untin', a favorite av 'is grandmother. they lived in de midst av galore, but wud not allow de younger brah'der, whose arrow wus insufficient ter kill anythin' but birds, ter share wi' their abundance. as dis young paddy wus wanderin' wan day along de shore, yer man saw a board perched on a limb 'angin' over de water. yer man aimed ter kill it, but 'is arrow, till dis time alwus sure, went aside de mark, an' sank into de sea. yer man determined ter recover it, an' made a dive for de 'ole. 'ere, ter 'is surprise, yer man foun' 'imself in a wee cottage. a fine-lookin' auld paddy sittin' dare welcomed 'imself wi' a smile, an' thus spoke ter 'im:
(The grandmother was so angry at her death that she threw the children into the sea. Scarcely had she reached her wigwam when the children had overtaken her at the door. She then thought best to let them live; and dividing the body of her daughter in two parts, she threw them up toward the heavens, when one became the sun, the other the moon. Then day and night first began. The children soon grew up to be men, and expert with bow and arrows. The elder had the arrow of the turtle, which was pointed with flint; the younger had the arrow pointed with bark. The first was, by his temper and skill and success in hunting, a favorite of his grandmother. They lived in the midst of plenty, but would not allow the younger brother, whose arrow was insufficient to kill anything but birds, to share with their abundance. As this young man was wandering one day along the shore, he saw a bird perched on a limb hanging over the water. He aimed to kill it, but his arrow, till this time always sure, went aside the mark, and sank into the sea. He determined to recover it, and made a dive for the bottom. Here, to his surprise, he found himself in a small cottage. A fine-looking old man sitting there welcomed him with a smile, and thus spoke to him:)
‘my current bun, oi failte yer ter de 'um av yisser owl lad! ter obtain dis meetin' oi directed al' de circumstances whaich 'av combined ter brin' yer 'ither. 'ere is yisser arrow, an' an ear av corn. oi 'av watched de unkindness av yisser brah'der, an' nigh comman' yer ter take 'is life. whaen yer return 'um, gather al' de flints yer can fend, an' 'ang up al' de deer's 'orns. dees are de only things whaich 'ill make an impression on 'is body, whaich is made av flint.’ havin' received dees instrucshuns, de young indian tuk 'is leave, an', in a quarrel wi' 'is brah'der, drove 'imself ter distant regions, far beyond de savannas, in de southwest, wha yer man killed 'imself, an' lef his 'uge flint form in de earth. (hence de rocky mountains.) de grate enemy ter de race av de turtle bein' thus destroyed, they sprang from de groun' in 'uman form, an' multiplied in peace. de grandmother, roused ter furious resentment at de loss av 'er favorite current bun, resolved ter be revenged.
For many days she caused de rain ter descend from de clouds in torrents, 'til de whole surface av de earth, an' even de 'ighest mountains, were covered. de inhabitants escaped by fleein' ter their canoes. she den covered de earth wi' snow; but they betook themselves ter their snow-shoes. she den gave up de 'ope av destroyin' dem al' at once, an' 'as ever since employed 'erself in inflictin' smaller evils on de warrld, while 'er younger current bun displays 'is gran' an' benevolent feelings by showerin' blessings on 'is race.”
(‘My son, I welcome you to the home of your father! To obtain this meeting I directed all the circumstances which have combined to bring you hither. Here is your arrow, and an ear of corn. I have watched the unkindness of your brother, and now command you to take his life. When you return home, gather all the flints you can find, and hang up all the deer's horns. These are the only things which will make an impression on his body, which is made of flint.’
Having received these instructions, the young Indian took his leave,
and, in a quarrel with his brother, drove him to distant regions, far
beyond the savannas, in the southwest, where he killed him, and left
his huge flint form in the earth. (Hence the Rocky Mountains.) The
great enemy to the race of the turtle being thus destroyed, they sprang
from the ground in human form, and multiplied in peace. The grandmother, roused to furious resentment at the loss of her favorite son, resolved to be revenged.
For many days she caused the rain to descend from the clouds in
torrents, until the whole surface of the earth, and even the highest
mountains, were covered. The inhabitants escaped by fleeing to their
canoes. She then covered the earth with snow; but they betook
themselves to their snow-shoes. She then gave up the hope of destroying them all at once, and has ever since employed herself in inflicting smaller evils on the world, while her younger son displays his good and benevolent feelings by showering blessings on his race.”)
TRIBES ON THE PLAINS.
“The Indian tribes on the plains, altogether, with those of New Mexico,
Texas, California, and Arizona, do not exceed 300,000, including
Indians, squaws, and papooses. They are as follows:
_Dakota._--Sioux (pronounced Soos), of these there are several bands,
under chiefs for each band, called Yanktons, Poncas, Lower Brules,
Lower Yanctonais, Two Kettle Sioux, Blackfeet, Minneconjons, Uncpapas Ogallahs, Upper Yanctonais, Sansarc, Wahpeton Sioux, Arickarees, Gros Ventres, Mandans, Assinaboins, Sipetons, Santee.
This nation is the most numerous and warlike, numbering 31,534. They
range from Kansas, on the Republican River, to Winnepeg, on the north. A treaty was made with these in 1868, between General Sherman, General Harney (an old Indian fighter), General Augur, General Sanborn, General Terry, Colonel Tappan, and Mr. Taylor, Commissioner, all of the Peace Commission, on the part of the government, at Fort Laramie, now Wyoming Territory, with Ma-za-pon-kaska, Tah-shun-ka-co-qui-pah, Heh-non-go-chat, Mah-to-non-pah, Little Chief, Makh-pi-ah-hi-tah, Co-cam-i-ya-ya, Can-te-pe-ta, Ma-wa-tan-ni-hav-ska, He-na-pin-na-ni-ca, Wah-pa-shaw, and other chiefs and headmen of different tribes of Sioux. This treaty, among other things, contained an agreement that, "If bad men among the whites should commit any wrong on the property or persons of Indians, the United States would punish them and pay for all losses. (Sure/Author)
"If bad men among the Indians shall do wrong to white men, black, or
Indian, the Indians making the treaty shall deliver up the wrong-doer
to the government, to be tried and punished; also agreeing about
certain lands for reservations, farms, annuities of goods, etc., to be
paid them instead of money, thus:
For each male person over fourteen years of age, a suit of good
substantial woolen clothing, etc. Each female over twelve, a flannel skirt, or goods to make it, a pair of woolen hose, twelve yards calico, and twelve yards cotton domestics, etc.
Ten dollars in money for those who roam and hunt, twenty for those
who engage in farming. For such as farm, a good American cow and
one pair broken oxen.
1. The Indians agreed to withdraw all opposition to railroads
built on the plains.
2. They will not attack any persons at home, or traveling, nor
molest or disturb any wagon trains, coaches, mules, or cattle
belonging to the people of the United States, or to persons
3. They will never capture or carry off from the settlements white
women or children.
4. They will never kill or scalp white men, nor attempt to do them
harm. The government agrees to furnish to the Indians a physician,
teachers, carpenter, miller, engineer, farmer, and blacksmiths, and
ten of the best farmers shall receive five hundred dollars a year
who will grow the best crops."
The names of the chiefs who signed the treaty are as follows:
Ma-za-pon-kaska, his x mark, Iron Shell.
Wah-pat-thah, Red Leaf.
Hah-tah-pah, Black Horn.
Zin-tak-gah-lat-skah, Spotted Tail.
Zin-tah-skah, White Tail.
Me-wah-tak-ne-ho-skah, Tall Mandas.
He-cha-chat-kah, Bad Left Hand.
No-mah-no-pah, two and Two.
Spotted Tail, who was at Fort D. A. Russell in 1868, just after the
treaty, wore a coon-skin cap,--hence called Spotted Tail. Each chief
gets his peculiar name from some event in his life, or some peculiarity
of person, as for instance,--
Tah-shun-ka-co-qui-pah, Man-afraid-of-his-horses. His horse stampeded
one day, when his tribe was fighting some other one, and ran into the
ranks of the enemy. When his owner got back again, he left his horse
behind and _went in_ (as we say), on foot, to fight again. It is not a
term of reproach, as he was not a coward, but did not want to lose his
horse,--hence called "Man-afraid-of-his-horses."
Tah-shun-ka-co-qui-pah, his x mark, Man-afraid-of-his-horses.
Sha-ton-skah, his x mark, White Hawk.
Sha-ton-sapah, his x mark, Black Hawk.
E-ga-mon-ton-ka-sapah, his x mark, Black Tiger.
Oh-wah-she-cha, his x mark, Bad Wound.
Pah-gee, his x mark, Grass.
Wah-non-reh-che-geh, his x mark, Ghost Heart.
Con-reeh, his x mark, Crow.
Oh-he-te-kah, his x mark, The Brave.
Tah-ton-kah-he-yo-ta-kah, his x mark, Sitting Bull.
Shon-ka-oh-wah-mon-ye, his x mark, Whirlwind Dog.
Ha-hah-kah-tah-miech, his x mark, Poor Elk.
Wam-bu-lee-wah-kon, his x mark, Medicine Eagle.
Chon-gah-ma-he-to-hans-ka, his x mark, High Wolf.
Wah-se-chun-ta-shun-kah, his x mark, American Horse.
Mah-hah-mah-ha-mak-near, his x mark, Man that walks under the ground.
Mah-to-tow-pah, his x mark, Four Bears.
Ma-to-wee-sha-kta, his x mark, One that kills the bear.
Oh-tah-kee-toka-wee-chakta, his x mark, One that kills in a hard place.
Tah-tonka-skah, his x mark, White Bull.
Con-ra-washta, his x mark, Pretty Coon.
Ha-cah-cah-she-chah, his x mark, Bad Elk.
Wa-ha-ka-zah-ish-tah, his x mark, Eye Lance.
Ma-to-ha-ke-tah, his x mark, Bear that looks behind.
Bella-tonka-tonka, his x mark, Big Partisan.
Mah-to-ho-honka, his x mark, Swift Bear.
To-wis-ne, his x mark, Cold Place.
Ish-tah-skah, his x mark, White Eyes.
Ma-ta-loo-zah, his x mark, Fast Bear.
As-hah-kah-nah-zhe, his x mark, Standing Elk.
Can-te-te-ki-ya, his x mark, The Brave Heart.
Shunka-shaton, his x mark, Day Hawk.
Tatanka-wakon, his x mark, Sacred Bull.
Mapia-shaton, his x mark, Hawk Cloud.
Ma-sha-a-ow, his x mark, Stands and Comes.
Shon-ka-ton-ka, his x mark, Big Dog.
Tah-ton-kak-ta-miech, The Poor Bull.
Oh-huns-ee-ga-non-sken, Mad Shade.
Thah-ton-oh-na-an-minne-ne-oh-minne, Whirling Hand.
Mah-to-chun-ka-oh, Bear's Back.
Che-ton-wee-koh, Fool Hawk.
Wah-ho-ke-zah-ah-hah, One that has the Lance.
Shon-gah-manni-toh-tan-kak-seh, Big Wolf Foot.
Eh-ton-kah, Big Mouth.
Granny B. Continuing
“This was the first Indian I saw at North Platte, when we came there in
1867. Looking out of the car window of the train, I called my wife's attention to big Indian, and said, "Did you ever see such a big mouth before?" Sure enough, it was the chief, and he was killed in a drunken row in Dakota recently, having been shot by Spotted Tail.”
Ma-pa-che-tah, Bad Hand.
Wah-ke-gun-shah, Red Thunder.
Wak-sah, One that cuts off.
Cham-nom-qui-yah, One that presents the Pipe.
Wah-ke-ke-yan-puh-tah, Fire Thunder.
Mah-to-nenk-pah-ze, Bear with Yellow Ears.
Con-reh-teh-kah, The Little Crow.
He-hup-pah-toh, The Blue War Club.
Shon-kee-toh, The Blue Horse.
Wam-balla-oh-conguo, Quick Eagle.
Ta-tonka-juppah, Black Bull.
Mo-to-ha-she-na, The Bear Hide.
Mah-to-non-pah, his x mark, Two Bears.
Mah-to-hna-skin-ya, his x mark, Mad Bear.
He-o-pu-za, his x mark, Lousy.
Ah-ke-che-tah-che-ca-dan, his x mark, Little Soldier.
Mah-to-e-tan-chan, his x mark, Chief Bear.
Cu-wi-h-win, his x mark, Rotten Stomach.
Skun-ka-we-tko, his x mark, Fool Dog.
Ish-ta-sap-pah, his x mark, Black Eye.
Ih-tan-chan, his x mark, the Chief.
I-a-wi-ca-ka, his x mark, The One who tells the Truth.
Ah-ke-che-tah, his x mark, The Soldier.
Ta-shi-na-gi, his x mark, Yellow Robe.
Nah-pe-ton-ka, his x mark, Big Hand.
Chan-tee-we-kto, his x mark, Fool Heart.
Hog-gan-sah-pa, his x mark, Black Catfish.
Mah-to-wah-kan, his x mark, Medicine Bear.
Shun-ka-kan-sha, his x mark, Red Horse.
Wan-rode, his x mark, The Eagle.
Can-hpi-sa-pa, his x mark, Black Tomahawk.
War-he-le-re, his x mark, Yellow Eagle.
Cha-ton-che-ca, his x mark, Small Hawk, or Long Fare.
Shu-ger-mon-e-too-ha-ska, his x mark, Tall Wolf.
Ma-to-u-tah-kah, his x mark, Sitting Bear.
Hi-ha-cah-ge-na-skene, his x mark, Mad Elk.
Little Chief, his x mark.
Tall Bear, his x mark.
Top Man, his x mark.
Neva, his x mark.
The Wounded Bear, his x mark.
Whirlwind, his x mark.
The Fox, his x mark.
The Dog Big Mouth, his x mark.
Spotted Wolf, his x mark.
Heh-non-ge-chat, One Horn.
Oh-pon-ah-tah-e-manne, The Elk that bellows Walking.
Heb-ho-lah-reh-cha-skah, Young White Bull.
Wah-cha-chum-kah-coh-kee-pah, One that is afraid of Shield.
He-hon-ne-shakta, The Old Owl.
Moe-pe-a-toh, Blue Cloud.
Oh-pong-ge-le-skah, Spotted Elk.
Tah-tonk-ka-hon-ke-schne, Slow Bull.
Shunk-a-nee-skah-skah-a-tah-pe, The Dog Chief.
Mah-to-tab-tonk-kah, Bull Bear.
Wom-beh-le-ton-kah, The Big Eagle.
Ma-to-eh-schne-lah, his x mark, the Lone Bear.
Mah-toh-ke-su-yah, his x mark, The One who remembers the Bear.
Ma-toh-oh-he-to-keh, his x mark, the Brave Bear.
Eh-che-ma-heh, his x mark, The Runner.
Ti-ki-ya, his x mark, The Hard.
He-ma-za, his x mark, Iron Horn.
The Lone Old Man.
And lastly, "Stinking Saddle-Cloth!"
Co-kam-i-ya-ya, his x mark, The Man that goes in the Middle.
Ma-to-ca-wa-weksa, his x mark, Bear Rib.
Ta-to-ka-in-yan-ke, his x mark, Running Antelope.
Kan-gi-wa-ki-ta, his x mark, Looking Crow.
A-ki-ci-ta-han-ska, his x mark, Long Soldier.
Wa-ku-te-ma-ni, his x mark, The One who shoots Walking.
Un-kea-ki-ka, his x mark, The Magpie.
Kan-gi-o-ta, his x mark, Plenty Crow.
He-ma-za, his x mark, Iron Horn.
Shun-ka-i-na-pin, his x mark, Wolf Necklace.
I-we-hi-yu, his x mark, The Man who Bleeds from the Mouth.
He-ha-ka-pa, his x mark, Elk Head.
I-zu-za, his x mark, Grind Stone.
Shun-ka-wi-tko, his x mark, Fool Dog.
Ma-kpi-ya-po, his x mark, Blue Cloud.
Wa-mln-pi-lu-ta, his x mark, Red Eagle.
Ma-to-can-te, his x mark, Bear's Heart.
A-ki-ci-ta-i-tau-can, his x mark, Chief Soldier.
Can-te-pe-ta, his x mark, Fire Heart.
Wan-mdi-kte, his x mark, The One who kills Eagle.
Sho-ta, his x mark, Smoke.
Wan-mdi-ma-ni, his x mark, Walking Eagle.
Wa-shi-cun-ya-ta-pi, his x mark, Chief White Man.
Kan-gi-i-yo-tan-ke, his x mark, Sitting Crow.
Pe-ji, his x mark, The Grass.
Kda-ma-ni, his x mark, The One that rattles as he Walks.
Wah-han-ka-sa-pa, his x mark, Black Shield.
Can-te-non-pa, his x mark, Two Hearts.
To-ka-in-yan-ka, his x mark, The One who goes ahead Running.
Ta-tan-ka-wa-kin-yan, his x mark, Thunder Bull.
Sin-to-min-sa-pa, his x mark, All over Black.
Can-i-ca, his x mark, The One who took the Stick.
Pa-tan-ka, his x mark, Big Head.
Ma-wa-tan-ni-han-ska, his x mark, Long Mandan.
Can-kpe-du-ta, his x mark, Red War Club.
Can-ka-ga, his x mark, The Log.
He-na-pin-wa-ni-ca, his x mark, The One that has neither Horn.
Wa-inlu-pi-lu-ta, his x mark, Red Plume.
Ci-tan-gi, his x mark, Yellow Hawk.
He-na-pin-wa-ni-ca, his x mark, No Horn.
Wa-pah-shaw, his x mark, Red Ensign.
Wah-koo-tay, his x mark, Shooter.
Hoo-sha-sha, his x mark, Red Legs.
O-wan-cha-du-ta, his x mark, Scarlet all over.
Wau-mace-tan-ka, his x mark, Big Eagle.
Cho-tan-ka-e-na-pe, his x mark, Flute-player.
Ta-shun-ke-mo-za, his x mark, His Iron Dog.
_In Washington Territory_ are five bands, such as the
Spokans, Pend d'Oreilles, etc., in all 9,285
_California._--Seven bands, such as Wylackies, etc. 25,225
_Arizona._--Apaches, Yumas, Mohaves, etc. 31,570
_Oregon._--Walla-Wallas, Cayuses, etc. 10,942
_Utah._--Utahs and Utes 25,250
_Nevada._--Pi-utes, Shoshones, Bannacks, Washoes, etc. 8,200
_New Mexico._--Navajoes, Pueblos, Jicarilla Apaches,
etc. (with 2000 captives held in peonage,--_i.e._
_Colorado._--U-in-tak, Utes 5,000
_Dakota_, including Wyoming, set off from Dakota:
Yancton Sioux 2,500
Lower Brules 1,600
Lower Yanctonais 2,250
Two-Kettle Sioux 750
Upper Yanctonais 2,400
Wahpeton Sioux 1,637
Gros Ventres 400
Sissetons and other Sioux 3,500
_Montana._--Piegans, Blackfeet, Flatheads, Gros Ventres,
Kootenays, Crows, etc. 19,560
_Nebraska and Kansas._--Winnebagoes, Omahas, Pawnees,
Sacs and Foxes of Missouri, Iowas, Cheyennes, Arapahoes,
and Sautee Sioux 17,995
_Central Agency, in Kansas and Indian
Territory._--Pottawatamies, Shawnees, Delaware, Osages,
Senecas, Kaws, Kickapoos, Ottawas, Comanches, Arapahoes,
Cheyennes, and Apaches 17,422
_Southern Agency, Cherokee Country._--Creeks, Cherokees,
Choctaws, Chickasaws, Seminoles, Wichitas, Keechies, Wolves,
Tuscaroras, Caddoes, Shawnees, Delawares, etc. 48,145
_Green Bay Agency._--Oneidas, Menominees, and Munsees 3,036
_Wisconsin._--Chippeways of Mississippi 6,179
_Lake Superior._--Chippewas, etc., wandering 6,114
_Mackinac._--Pottawatamies, etc. 8,099
_New York State._--Cattaraugas, Cayugas, Onondagas,
with Senecas, Allegany, Tonawandas, Tuscaroras, Oneidas,
“friday wus foun' on de plains many years ago, while a lad, by owl lad de smet, a jesuit missionary, an' taken ter st. louis, wha yer man wus educated. yer man returned again ter 'is tribe, an' leads a rovin' life. in november, 1869, yer man came ter our post wi' medicine-man, wee wolf, sorrel 'orse, an' cut-foot, 'avin' been broot down by general augur, commander av de department av de platte, ter go up de union pacific railroad, as far as wind river valley, ter meet auld waskakie, noggin chief av de shoshones, an' ter make a treaty wi' 'is tribe, fearin' de southern sioux an' cheyenne’s wud make war upon friday's ban', whic numbered only fifteen ton. not findin' waskakie on 'is reservashun, they waited several weeks for 'is return from de mountains, wha yer man wus gone on a 'unt for 'is winter's supply av buffalo an' dare meat. after waitin' as long as they cud, de arapahoes lef sum av their arrows for waskakie, dat yer man might nu they 'ad been dare, an' also brought back sum av de shoshones' arrows, ter convince de arapahoe indians dat they 'ad fulfilled their mission.
(“Friday was found on the Plains many years ago, while a lad, by Father
de Smet, a Jesuit missionary, and taken to St. Louis, where he was
educated. He returned again to his tribe, and leads a roving life. In
November, 1869, he came to our post with Medicine-Man, Little Wolf,
Sorrel Horse, and Cut-Foot, having been brought down by General Augur, Commander of the Department of the Platte, to go up the Union Pacific Railroad, as far as Wind River Valley, to meet old Waskakie, head chief of the Shoshones, and to make a treaty with his tribe, fearing the
southern Sioux and Cheyenne’s would make war upon Friday's band, whic numbered only fifteen hundred. Not finding Waskakie on his reservation, they waited several weeks for his return from the mountains, where he was gone on a hunt for his winter's supply of buffalo and deer meat.
After waiting as long as they could, the Arapahoes left some of their
arrows for Waskakie, that he might know they had been there, and also
brought back some of the Shoshones' arrows, to convince the Arapahoe Indians that they had fulfilled their mission.)
At dis time, Froiday 'ad a bonny set av arrows, bow an' quiver, which oi desired ter purchase an' shenanagans east, ter show sunday-school children de weapons av indian warfare, an' 'oy they kill their game, friday wud not flog 'is "outfit," as so'tiz called, for nicker, but wus willin' ter "trade" for a revolver, wi' whaich yer man said yer man cud 'unt buffalo. at first, de indian agent said it wus unlawful ter flog firearms an' ammunishun ter de indians. dis oi towl Froiday. yer man den said, "_well, let's trade on de sly_." dis oi declined ter chucker. but after a few days, oi got permission, an' tuk Froiday into cheyenne, ter select de pistol. after pickin' oyt a gran' wan, yer man den begged for bullet-mud, lead, powder, an' caps. a trade is never complete wi' an indian as long as yer man sees anythin' yer man can git added ter de bargain. general duncan, av de 5th cavalry, tells me av wan av 'is trades wi' a red paddy at fort laramie. 'is wee fella tuk a fancy ter an indian pony wan day, an' de general offered ter exchange a nice _mule_ for de pony. dis wus soon done an' settled, as de general supposed. but next day de indian came back an' demanded sum tobacco, sugar, flour.
(At this time, Friday had a beautiful set of arrows, bow and quiver,
which I desired to purchase and carry east, to show Sunday-school
children the weapons of Indian warfare, and how they kill their game,
Friday would not sell his "outfit," as it is called, for money, but was
willing to "trade" for a revolver, with which he said he could hunt
buffalo. At first, the Indian agent said it was unlawful to sell
firearms and ammunition to the Indians. This I told Friday. He then
said, "_Well, let's trade on the sly_." This I declined to do. But
after a few days, I got permission, and took Friday into Cheyenne, to
select the pistol. After picking out a good one, he then begged for
bullet-mould, lead, powder, and caps. A trade is never complete with an
Indian as long as he sees anything he can get added to the bargain.
General Duncan, of the 5th Cavalry, tells me of one of his trades with
a red man at Fort Laramie. His little boy took a fancy to an Indian
pony one day, and the general offered to exchange a nice _mule_ for the
pony. This was soon done and settled, as the general supposed. But next
day the Indian came back and demanded some tobacco, sugar, flour.)
"what for?" demanded de general. de indian gave 'imself ter understand that yer man did trade 'orses, but as de mule 'ad wee or naw tail, an' the pony a long wan, _he wanted de sugar, tobacco, an' flour ter make up for de tail_! after Froiday an' 'is fellow-chiefs 'ad lef us, some one wrote dis ter a chicago paper, as follows:
("What for?" demanded the general. The Indian gave him to understand that he did trade horses, but as the mule had little or no tail, and the pony a long one, _he wanted the sugar, tobacco, and flour to make up for the tail_! After Friday and his fellow-chiefs had left us, some
one wrote this to a Chicago paper, as follows:)
THE AUTHOR IS A MEDICINE-MAN.
(The Indians sometimes confer "brevets" on distinguished individuals as
marks of favor, though they do not, or have not as yet, scattered them
in like profusion, as in the army, so that the whole thing has become a
Mr. Catlin, or Mr. Schoolcraft (Indian writers and painters), was made
a regular chief of the Chippewas in the time of Red Jacket, a big chief
at Tonawanda. In the month of November, 1869, five Arapahoe chiefs came to Fort Russell,--"Friday," "Little Wolf," "Cut-Foot," "Sorrel Horse,"
and "Head Medicine-Man." On account of many little kindnesses to them while remaining, Friday invited the writer to go up with the party to
their home among the Black Hills, where he could be initiated into the
forms of a civil chief. Friday said, "These fellows"--meaning his
companions--"think a big heap of you, and want you to go home with
them." As the ceremony includes a dog feast, it was postponed for
awhile. They called me "The White Medicine-Man,"--and the feast has
been partaken of at different times by some officers on the plains, who
say dog's meat tastes much like mutton. A feast was made, it is said,
at Fort Laramie for the Peace Commission, which met there in 1868.
There were Generals Sherman, Harney, Augur, Terry, Sanborn, and Col. Tappan present. A big chief had given the entertainment of dog, in
soup, roast, etc. Having only one big tin dish to serve the soup in,
and it being rather dirty, the old squaw seized a pup to wipe it out
with. But the old chief felt mortified at it, and so he tore off a
piece of his shirt and gave the pan an extra wipe!)
THE SIOUX SUN DANCE
“red cloud, a noggin chief, lives in waaat is called de powder river country, above fort fetterman. but de sioux nashun roam for 'undreds of miles al' over de plains, an' are sure ter a go up jist whaen an' where they are laest expected. these sioux, de most numerous av al' de indian tribes, 'av a festive performance, whaich is regarded by al' civilized people wi' 'orror an' abhorrence, an' wan whaich few can luk upon wi' nerve enoof ter clap de end. it is a sort av religious dance, in whaich de young braves test their fortitude an' stoicism in resistin' pain an' torture withoyt wincin'. a young officer, who witnessed de "sun dance" last year, at de cheyenne agency, a few miles above fort sully, on de missouri river, gives de followin' account:
(“Red Cloud, a head chief, lives in what is called the Powder River
country, above Fort Fetterman. But the Sioux nation roam for hundreds
of miles all over the plains, and are sure to turn up just when and
where they are least expected.
These Sioux, the most numerous of all the Indian tribes, have a festive
performance, which is regarded by all civilized people with horror and
abhorrence, and one which few can look upon with nerve enough to see the end.
It is a sort of religious dance, in which the young braves test their
fortitude and stoicism in resisting pain and torture without wincing. A
young officer, who witnessed the "Sun Dance" last year, at the Cheyenne agency, a few miles above Fort Sully, on the Missouri River, gives the following account:)
"The Indians manifested considerable opposition to having any
whites present. When several officers belonging to the 17th United
States Infantry came up, Red Leaf--a chief of Red Cloud's
band--leaped over a breastwork of logs and ordered the troops away.
After parleying with the chief some time, the soldiers fell back
and took a position which was not objectionable to the Indians, but
from which they could obtain only a partial view of the
performances. There was a large lodge, built in shape of an
amphitheater, with a hole in the center. The sides and roof were
covered with willows, forming a tolerable screen, but not so dense
as to obstruct entirely the view. The performances began with low
chants and incantations. Five young men were brought in and
partially stripped, their mothers being present and assisting in
Then the 'Medicine-man' began his part by cutting slits in the
flesh of the young men and taking up the muscles with pincers. The
old squaws assisted in lacerating the flesh of the boys with sharp
knives. The squaws would at the same time keep up a howling,
accompanied with a backward-and-forward movement. When the muscels were lifted out by pincers on the breast, one end of a kind of
lariat (used for fastening horses while grazing), or buffalo thong,
was tied to the bleeding flesh, while the other end was fastened to
the top of the pole in the middle of the lodge. The first young
man, when thus prepared, commenced dancing around the circle in a
most frantic manner, pulling with all his might, so as to stretch
out the rope, and by his jerking movements loosening himself by
tearing out the flesh. The young man's dance was accompanied by a
chant by those who were standing around, assisted by the thumping
of a hideous drum, to keep the time. The young brave who was
undergoing this self-torture finally succeeded in tearing himself
loose, and the rope relaxed from its sudden tightness and fell back
toward the center pole with a piece of the flesh to which it was
tied. The victim, who, up to this point, did not move a muscle of
his face, fell down on the ground, exhausted from the pain, which
human weakness could not further conceal. A squaw then rushed in
and bore the young brave away. He had undergone the terrible
ordeal, and amid the congratulations of the old men, would be
complimented as a warrior of undoubted pluck and acknowledged
Another of the young men, named Charles, was cut in two places
under the shoulder blade; the flesh was raised with pincers, and
thongs tied around the flesh and muscles thus raised. The thongs
reached down below the knees and were tied to buffalo skulls. With
these heavy weights dangling at the ends of the thongs, the young
man was required to dance around the circle, to the sound of the
drum and chants of the bystanders, until the skulls became detached
by tearing out the flesh. They continued the performance until one
of the skulls broke loose, but the other remained. The mother of
the young man then rushed into the ring, leading a pony, and tied
one end of the lariat which was around the pony's neck to the
skull, which was still fastened to the young Indian. The latter
then followed the pony round the ring, until nearly exhausted he
fell on his face, and the skull was thereby torn out of the flesh.
The sufferer's voice grew husky from joining in the chant; he
groveled on the ground in violent contortions for a few minutes,
and was then removed to the outside of the lodge.
A third man had the lariat of the pony hitched to the raised
muscles of his back, and was dragged in this way several times
round the ring; but the force not being sufficient to tear loose
from the flesh, the pony was backed up, and a slack being thus
taken on the lariat, the pony was urged swiftly forward, and the
sudden jerk tore the lariat out of the flesh."
Our informant having seen enough of these horrid performances to
satisfy his curiosity, left with his companions, "without waiting to
see the dance through." The dance, with its bloody orgies, lasted three
whole days. This Sun Dance is not as common as formerly, and as the
Indians settle on reservations, it is wholly done away with. The origin
of the custom is uncertain.
“my experience on de plains dates from september, 1867. de government ordered me ter report ter fort sedgweck, a post on de south side av de platte river, tree ton an' seventy-seven miles west av omaha. dis post lies four miles south av julesburg, den de end av de union pacific railroad. dare were foive t'ousan' people dare, an' it wus said ter be de most class city in de warrld. thieves an' escaped convicts came 'ere ter gamble an' lead brutal lives, as they 'ad done in eastern cities, 'til driven away for fear av punishment; an' often three or four wud be shot down at noight in drunken rows wi' their companions in vice an' crime. a mammoth tent wus erected for a dance-house an' gamblin' purposes. it wus called "the kin' av de 'ills," an' wus filled up wi' 'andsum mirrors, pianos, an' furniture, an' wus de scene av al' kinds av wickedness. it rented for six ton dollars a day!
(“My experience on the plains dates from September, 1867. The government ordered me to report to Fort Sedgwick, a post on the south side of the Platte River, three hundred and seventy-seven miles west of Omaha. This post lies four miles south of Julesburg, then the end of the Union Pacific Railroad. There were five thousand people there, and it was
said to be the most wicked city in the world. Thieves and escaped
convicts came here to gamble and lead bad lives, as they had done in
Eastern cities, until driven away for fear of punishment; and often
three or four would be shot down at night in drunken rows with their
companions in vice and crime.
A mammoth tent was erected for a dance-house and gambling purposes. It was called "The King of the Hills," and was filled up with handsome mirrors, pianos, and furniture, and was the scene of all kinds of
wickedness. It rented for six hundred dollars a day!)
'ere 'undreds av tren, engaged as freighters, teamsters, an' "bull-whackers,"--as they were called, an' who were in de employ av wells, fargo & co. in freightin' goods in lorge wagons ter idaho, montana, salt lake, an' california,--wud congregate at noight an' gamble an' carouse, spendin' al' their tree months' earnings, only ter go back, earn more, an' spend it again in dis foolish an' class manner. one day oi came over ter de city, an' while drivin' from de express office, 'eard pistol-shots, an' soon saw de tren, weemen, an' laddies runnin' in every direcshun. oi got oyt av de way, fearin' danger, an' listened, till oi 'ad 'eard at laest score shorts, an' den al' wus still. oi went roun' ter ascertain de cause, an' soon foun' me self among a shower av savages av excited persons. oi learned dat a brutal young paddy 'ad robbed a stoney broke negro fella av tonne an' t'airty dollars yer man 'ad earned at de railroad stashun, an' 'ad laid it by ter go ter 'is 'um in baltimore. the fella denied it, an' said ‘he'd shoot anyone who tried ter arrest him.’ a peelers officer followed 'imself into a saloon, whaen de thief at once turned an' fired at de officer, woundin' 'imself in 'is roi elbow, so yer man cud not reach 'is pistols in 'is belt. but sum mucker 'anded him wan, an' wi' it yer man knocked de villain down, behind a cooker. de fella den begged for 'is life, sayin' yer man wud gie up de nicker an' a thousan' dollars for 'is life. but it wus too late. de officer shot him in de forehead, an' whaen oi entered, yer man wus welterin' in a pool av blud. al' said, "served 'imself roi!" dis is a law av western life. if two tren git into a dispute, an' wan puts 'is 'an' ter 'is davy crockett, as if to draw a weapon, de other is sure ter shoot 'is enemy, as de law is, "_a life for a life_."
(Here hundreds of men, engaged as freighters, teamsters, and
"bull-whackers,"--as they were called, and who were in the employ of
Wells, Fargo & Co. in freighting goods in large wagons to Idaho,
Montana, Salt Lake, and California,--would congregate at night and
gamble and carouse, spending all their three months' earnings, only to
go back, earn more, and spend it again in this foolish and wicked
One day I came over to the city, and while driving from the express
office, heard pistol-shots, and soon saw the men, women, and children
running in every direction. I got out of the way, fearing danger, and
listened, till I had heard at least twenty shots, and then all was
still. I went round to ascertain the cause, and soon found myself among
a crowd of excited persons. I learned that a bad young man had robbed a poor negro boy of one hundred and thirty dollars he had earned at the
railroad station, and had laid it by to go to his home in Baltimore.
The fellow denied it, and said ‘he'd shoot anyone who tried to arrest
him.’ A police officer followed him into a saloon, when the thief at
once turned and fired at the officer, wounding him in his right elbow,
so he could not reach his pistols in his belt. But some friend handed
him one, and with it he knocked the villain down, behind a stove. The fellow then begged for his life, saying he would give up the money and a
thousand dollars for his life. But it was too late. The officer shot
him in the forehead, and when I entered, he was weltering in a pool of
blood. All said, "Served him right!" This is a law of Western life. If
two men get into a dispute, and one puts his hand to his pocket, as if
to draw a weapon, the other is sure to shoot his enemy, as the law is,
"_a life for a life_.")
JULESBURG took its name from a small place just below Sedgwick, where a Frenchman named Jules built a ranch and raised cattle a long time
before the railroad was built. Here, passengers to Denver would get
their meals, and the horses were changed on the stage route to Denver
and to Salt Lake. Some Indians it is said killed the old man Jules, and
his ranch having been taken possession of by the Indians, was shelled
by cannon from Fort Sedgwick, and burned down. Mr. Greeley must
remember this station, which he and Mr. Colfax and Gov. Bross, of
Illinois, passed on their overland trip to California some ten years
ago, and where they dined upon the universal fare,--corn-bread, coffee,
The city of Julesburg, as it was called in 1867, was visited by a party
of editors from Chicago, Cleveland, etc. They came in one of Pullman's
palace cars to see the contractor of the Union Pacific Railroad lay the
track, as many as four miles each day. Being anxious to write home to
their papers all the wonderful things they saw and heard, they came
across a strange, wild-looking man named "Sam Stanton," dressed in a
buckskin suit, with a broad-brimmed hat. Sam was a returned California miner, of long experience on the plains. Him they invited to come into the beautiful car, to tell them some stories of pioneer life; and, in order to incite him, or _excite_ his imagination to do so, they invited
him to drink some wine. As it happened, Sam had never before tasted any stimulants but common whisky, and the wine getting into his head, made him a little tipsy.”
"You want me to show you how we put out the lights in the ranches, I
"Yes," they said; "tell us anything of Western life."
"Well, here goes," he said, and at once drew his revolver and began
popping away at the beautiful globe lamps which adorned the car! Of
course all the party stampeded for the door. They had had enough of
It is a rule for the last one that gets into bed to put out the light;
but a lazy fellow will crawl into bed and, taking aim, extinguish the
light by firing off his pistol at the flame!
A "Ranch" is simply a one-story log-house, with two or three rooms, and a thatched roof of straw. Sometimes they are made of a-do-be,--a kind
of dried clay-brick, such as are found in Mexico and some parts of
California and Texas.
A BRAVE BOY AND SOME INDIANS.
Grannie B. continuing:
Whaen de railroad 'ad been built as far as plum creek, two ton an' t'airty miles west av omaha, in 1866, de track-layers saw lashings av indians comin' toward dem from over de bluffs; an' de stoney broke irishmen, dreadin' nathin' so much as de sight av a red-skin, at once tuk ter their 'eels ter 'ide from de foe. along wi' dees tren dare wus a nade for covered wagons, in whaich they carried tools, etc., an' in whaich at night they slept. in wan av dem a fella wus sittin', aboyt twelve or fourteen years av age. yer man saw nathin' av de stampede av workmen, but soon wus aroused by de yell av de indians. yer man seized a spencer rifle lyin' close by 'imself, an', puttin' de muzzle through a slit av de canvas cover, tuk gran' aim at de foremost indian, an' whaen within a few yards, yer man shot aff 'is rifle an' felled 'imself ter de groun'. another rode up, an' met de seem fate. several den rushed up an' dragged aff the bodies av de two indians slain, an' al' at once made a quick retrate!
(When the railroad had been built as far as Plum Creek, two hundred and thirty miles west of Omaha, in 1866, the track-layers saw a lot of
Indians coming toward them from over the bluffs; and the poor Irishmen, dreading nothing so much as the sight of a red-skin, at once took to their heels to hide from the foe. Along with these men there was a need for covered wagons, in which they carried tools, etc., and in which at
night they slept. In one of them a boy was sitting, about twelve or
fourteen years of age. He saw nothing of the stampede of workmen, but soon was aroused by the yell of the Indians. He seized a Spencer rifle
lying close by him, and, putting the muzzle through a slit of the
canvas cover, took good aim at the foremost Indian, and when within a
few yards, he shot off his rifle and felled him to the ground. Another
rode up, and met the same fate. Several then rushed up and dragged off
the bodies of the two Indians slain, and all at once made a quick
"De indians seein' several wagons dare, supposed each wan contained armed soldiers or men; an' they were queck ter clap dat de white man's skill wus more than their bows an' arrows. an' yet dare wus only dat brave wee fella, who saved de whole "_outfit_," an' whose name ought ter be recorded as a true so 'tis 'ero."
(The Indians seeing several wagons there, supposed each one contained
armed soldiers or men; and they were quick to see that the white man's
skill was more than their bows and arrows. And yet there was only that
brave little fellow, who saved the whole "_outfit_," and whose name
ought to be recorded as a true hero.)
AN INDIAN MEAL.
Mrs. Calabash Who Witnessed the Discussion:
“Boys would be surprised to see how much an Indian can eat at a single
meal. A "big chief" can eat a whole goose or turkey at one sitting. The
Indians eat right along, till they have gorged themselves and can eat
no more. Perhaps it is because they seldom get what is called "a square
meal," and so when plenty offers they make the most of it. One day,
four chiefs of the Ar-ap-a-hoe tribe came to Fort Russell, to see about
getting rations for three hundred of their tribe. They soon found their
way to the commanding officer, at headquarters. He gave each one a
cigar, which they puffed away at for some time. At last one of them
made a motion to his mouth, signifying they were "hungry." Nearly all
the tribes of wild Indians convey their ideas more by signs than by
words. But the general would not take the hint. He said if he fed them
once, they would come every day.
"A godly lady, 'owever, tuk pity on dem, an' said ter me."
(A Godly lady, however, took pity on them, and said to me,)
"Let us make contributions from each family, and give the poor fellows something to eat."
De ladies pitched in an' sum broot meat, sum biscuit an' bread, an' oi made dem sum coffee, after invitin' dem ter cum into me yard. de laddies, boys an' birds, assembled ter clap de four chiefs sittin' raun de table in de yard devour de grub we 'ad prepared for dem. there wus naw coy juice in de coffee, but oi knew indians were not used ter it, an' al' things bein' ready, de coffee 'ot an' de rasher smoking an' smellin' savory, oi expected they wud fall ter an' ayte loike grand fellows. but oi wus gobsmacked dat wan av dem looked at de pail av coffee an' gave a grunt av disapprobashun. oi supposed from waaat oi 'ad heard dat an indian wud draink coffee, swallowin' de _grounds_ an' all. but on a close luk, oi discovered _aboyt a dozen flies_ were floatin' on top. oi tuk a spoon an' removed dem, an' tastin' it myself, passed it roun' ter each wan in a bowl; an' dis time they gave another grunt,--but it wus wan av approbashun. they ate an' ate till we thought they'd split, an' den asked permission ter shenanagans aff in a bag what they cud not stow away in their capacious stomachs!”
("The ladies pitched in and some brought meat, some biscuit and
bread, and I made them some coffee, after inviting them to come into my yard. The children, boys and girls, assembled to see the four chiefs
sitting around the table in the yard devour the food we had prepared
There was no milk in the coffee, but I knew Indians were not used to
it, and all things being ready, the coffee hot and the bacon smoking
and smelling savory, I expected they would fall to and eat like good
fellows. But I was surprised that one of them looked at the pail of
coffee and gave a grunt of disapprobation. I supposed from what I had
heard that an Indian would drink coffee, swallowing the _grounds_ and
all. But on a close look, I discovered _about a dozen flies_ were
floating on top. I took a spoon and removed them, and tasting it
myself, passed it round to each one in a bowl; and this time they gave
another grunt,--but it was one of approbation. They ate and ate till we
thought they'd split, and then asked permission to carry off in a bag
what they could not stow away in their capacious stomachs!”)
"An indian seldom shows any signs av joy or av sorrow in any emotion whatever. but whaen they meet a white mucker, or are gobsmacked at anythin', they exclaim, "how! 'oy!" an' shake 'ands al' roun'. an indian trader towl me at norn platte sum anecdotes av their characteristics. they are al' pure fond av sugar, an' pure fond av whisky. they 'ill often flog a buffalo robe for a bowl av sugar, an' at any time wud gie a pony for a gallon av rye or rum. he towl me dat yer man once saw an indian choke a squaw ter git a shkelp av sugar oyt av 'er gob whaich yer man coveted! an' a storekeeper at julesburg (mr. pease) said yer man sauld gollier pup ter an indian for a robe, an' de indian seized de dag, cleave 'is throat, an', soon as dead, thru pup into a kettle ter boil up for soup!"
(“An Indian seldom shows any signs of joy or of sorrow in any emotion
whatever. But when they meet a white friend, or are surprised at
anything, they exclaim, "How! how!" and shake hands all round.
An Indian trader told me at North Platte some anecdotes of their
characteristics. They are all very fond of sugar, and very fond of
whisky. They will often sell a buffalo robe for a bowl of sugar, and at
any time would give a pony for a gallon of rye or rum.
He told me that he once saw an Indian choke a squaw to get a lump of
sugar out of her mouth which he coveted! And a storekeeper at Julesburg (Mr. Pease) said he sold a big pup to an Indian for a robe, and the
Indian seized the dog, cut his throat, and, soon as dead, threw pup
into a kettle to boil up for soup!)
SHALL THE INDIANS BE EXTERMINATED?
This is the cry of Western men. It is very easy to talk of
General Harney, an old Indian fighter, told General Sherman “that a general war with the Indians would cost the government $50,000,000 a year, and stop for a long time the running of the Pacific Railroad. They fight only at an advantage,--when they outnumber the whites. They fight, scatter away, and reunite again; hide away in canyons, gorges, and mountain fastness’s, where no soldier can find them. It would be a war of fifty years' duration.”
General Sherman is reported to have said at a meeting of the Indian
Peace Commissioners, at Fort Laramie, with several tribes, "Say to the
head chief that President Grant loves the red men and will do all he
can for them. But they must behave themselves, and if they don't, tell
him _I'll kill them_!"
The old chief began to mutter away something to himself and others.
"What does he say?" said General Sherman.
"Why," said the interpreter, "he says, '_catch 'em first, then kill
Have they never been wronged by white men? Have you never heard of the Sand Creek Massacre?
“there 'ad been sum trouble between de cheyennes an' arapahoes an' sum soldiers near fort lyon, in 1864, south av denver, colorado, wha dees indians 'av a reservashun. de origin av de trouble is uncertain. major anthony wus sent oyt ter scrap them; but on 'is arrival he foun' dem peaceable,--they 'ad given up their prisoners an' 'orses. [indians take their squaws an' papooses wi' dem whaen they go on huntin' expedishuns. de squaws prepare al' de meat, dry al' de game for winter grub, an' tan de buffalo- an' deer-hides ter flog. they live in tents or lodges, called "tepees," made av tanned buffalo-skins, an' usually 'owl aboyt foive persons, in whaich they cuk an' sleep. _on de war-path_, they leave their squaws an' papooses in their villages. dis was de case whaen colonel chivington (formerly a preacher) charged dat they were 'ostile, as an apology for 'is wholesale slaughter.]
(“There had been some trouble between the Cheyennes and Arapahoes and some soldiers near Fort Lyon, in 1864, south of Denver, Colorado, where these Indians have a reservation. The origin of the trouble is
uncertain. Major Anthony was sent out to fight them; but on his arrival
he found them peaceable,--they had given up their prisoners and horses.
[Indians take their squaws and papooses with them when they go on
hunting expeditions. The squaws prepare all the meat, dry all the game
for winter food, and tan the buffalo- and deer-hides to sell. They live
in tents or lodges, called "Tepees," made of tanned buffalo-skins, and
usually hold about five persons, in which they cook and sleep. _On the
war-path_, they leave their squaws and papooses in their villages. This
was the case when Colonel Chivington (formerly a preacher) charged that they were hostile, as an apology for his wholesale slaughter.)
Foive ton indians av al' donkey's years flocked, soon as attacked, ter de noggin chief's camp,--"black kettle,"--an' yer man raised de american flag, _with a white truce beneath_. dis, yer nu, is respected in al' civilized warfare. den de slaughter began. one who saw it said, "the troops (mainly volunteers) committed al' manner av depredashuns on their victims,--_scalped them_, knocked out their brains. de white tren used their knives, cuttin' squaws ter pieces, clubbed wee laddies, knockin' oyt their brains an' mutilatin' their bodies in every sense av de ward." thus imitating savage warfare by nominally christian tren.
(Five hundred Indians of all ages flocked, soon as attacked, to the head
chief's camp,--"Black Kettle,"--and he raised the American flag, _with
a white truce beneath_. This, you know, is respected in all civilized
warfare. Then the slaughter began.
One who saw it said, "The troops (mainly volunteers) committed all
manner of depredations on their victims,--_scalped them_, knocked out
their brains. The white men used their knives, cutting squaws to
pieces, clubbed little children, knocking out their brains and
mutilating their bodies in every sense of the word." Thus imitating
savage warfare by nominally Christian men.)
Robert Bent testified thus:
"I saw a little girl about five years of age, who had been hid in
the sand; two soldiers discovered her, drew their pistols and shot
her, and then pulled her out of the sand by her arm," etc.
This occurred at the time government officials in Denver had sent for
them,--had a "talk" with them,--advising them to go just where they
were. Before he was killed, Black Kettle, one of the chiefs, thus
addressed the governor at Denver:
"We have come with our eyes shut, following Major Wynkoop's handful of men, like coming through the fire. All we ask is, that we may
have peace with the whites. We want to hold you by the hand. You
are our father. We have been traveling through a cloud. The sky has
been dark ever since the war began.
"These braves who are here with me, are willing to do all I say. We
want to take good news home to our people, that they may sleep in
Black Kettle Continued:
"_I have not come here with a little wolf-bark!_ But have come to
talk plain with you. We must live near the buffalo or starve. When
I go home, I will tell my people I have taken your hand, and all of
the white chiefs in Denver, and then they will feel well, and so
will all the tribes on the plains, when we have eaten and drank
“an' yet tonne an' score friendly indians were al' slain, an' de war dat followed cost $40,000,000. a council av indians wus 'eld previous ter de ‘chivington massacre,’ which stamped de character av black kettle, de cheyenne chief, as noble an' brave. it seems dat yer man 'ad purchased from an arapahoe ban' two birds named laura roper, aged eighteen, an' belle eubanks, aged six years, who were captured by de indians, after attackin' roper's ranch, on de wee blue river, in july, 1864. two wee boys were also captured at de seem time. they were carried aff ter de republican river, an' black kettle bought dem for foive or six ponies, ter gie them ter their auld pair. certainly a generous act. yer man gave dem up, an' met de commissioners in council, together wi' several arapahoe chiefs av wee bands, al' av whom were confederate together ter kill de commissioners an' brin' on a general war. black kettle knew it, an' wus determined ter expose de plot an' break it up. but de party av white officials, wi' colonel e. w. wynkoop, were in de dark aboyt their evil intenshuns. de indians called de colonel, "the tall chief dat don't fib."
(“And yet one hundred and twenty friendly Indians were all slain, and the war that followed cost $40,000,000.
A Council of Indians was held previous to the ‘Chivington Massacre,’
which stamped the character of Black Kettle, the Cheyenne chief, as
noble and brave. It seems that he had purchased from an Arapahoe band two girls named Laura Roper, aged eighteen, and Belle Eubanks, aged six years, who were captured by the Indians, after attacking Roper's ranch, on the Little Blue River, in July, 1864. Two little boys were also
captured at the same time. They were carried off to the Republican
River, and Black Kettle bought them for five or six ponies, to give
them to their parents. Certainly a generous act. He gave them up, and
met the Commissioners in council, together with several Arapahoe chiefs of small bands, all of whom were confederate together to kill the
Commissioners and bring on a general war.
Black Kettle knew it, and was determined to expose the plot and break
it up. But the party of white officials, with Colonel E. W. Wynkoop,
were in the dark about their evil intentions. The Indians called the
Colonel, "The Tall Chief that don't lie.")
"Black Kettle"--Mo-ke-ta-va-ta--colonel Tappan says, "was de most remarkable paddy av de age for magnanimity, generosity, courage, an' integrity. 'is 'ospitality ter destitute emigrants an' travelers on the plains for years, 'ad naw limit within de utmost extent av 'is means; givin' liberally av 'is stores av provisions, clothin', an' horses. 'is fame as an orator wus widely known. yer man wus deadly in council, an' 'is ward wus law. 'undreds av whites are indebted ter 'imself for their lives.... yer man 'eld colonel Chivington's tren at bay for seven hours, an' carried ter a place av safety tree ton av 'is weemen an' children,--twenty av 'is braves an' 'is own struggle an' strife pierced wi' a dozen bullets.” "previous ter de conflict, after 'is two brothers 'ad been shot down an' cleave ter pieces before 'is eyes (while approachin' de troops ter notify dem av de friendly character av de indians), Black Kettle aided tree white tren ter escape from de village, wan av dem a soldier. they were 'is guests, whom yer man suspected av bein' spies, 'but did not nu it,' an' they are nigh livin' ter de eternal fame an' 'onor av de chieftain. from san' creek yer man fled ter de sioux camp, wha it wus determined to make war upon de whites in retaliashun. yer man protested against interferin' wi' weemen an' laddies, an' insisted upon millin' de men. yer man wus overruled. thereupon yer man resigned 'is office as chief, an' assumed de garb av a brave. yer man soon after made peace for 'is tribe, which wus faithfully kept 'til de burnin' av their village two years afterward. a war again ensued, in whaich yer man tuk naw part, 'aving promised never again ter raise 'is 'ands against de whites. yer man wus de first ter meet de peace commissioners at medicine lodge creek. 'is many services an' virtues plead loike angels trumpet-tongued against de deep damnashun av 'is takin' aff."
("Black Kettle"--Mo-ke-ta-va-ta--Colonel Tappan says, "was the most
remarkable man of the age for magnanimity, generosity, courage, and
integrity. His hospitality to destitute emigrants and travelers on
the plains for years, had no limit within the utmost extent of his
means; giving liberally of his stores of provisions, clothing, and
horses. His fame as an orator was widely known. He was great in
council, and his word was law. Hundreds of whites are indebted to him
for their lives.... He held Colonel Chivington's men at bay for seven
hours, and carried to a place of safety three hundred of his women and
children,--twenty of his braves and his own wife pierced with a dozen
"Previous to the conflict, after his two brothers had been shot down
and cut to pieces before his eyes (while approaching the troops to
notify them of the friendly character of the Indians), Black Kettle aided three white men to escape from the village, one of them a soldier. They were his guests, whom he suspected of being spies, 'but did not know it,'
and they are now living to the eternal fame and honor of the chieftain.
From Sand Creek he fled to the Sioux camp, where it was determined
to make war upon the whites in retaliation. He protested against
interfering with women and children, and insisted upon fighting the
men. He was overruled. Thereupon he resigned his office as chief, and
assumed the garb of a brave. He soon after made peace for his tribe,
which was faithfully kept until the burning of their village two years
afterward. A war again ensued, in which he took no part, having
promised never again to raise his hands against the whites. He was the
first to meet the Peace Commissioners at Medicine Lodge Creek. His many services and virtues plead like angels trumpet-tongued against the deep damnation of his taking off.")
"Well, whaen de council assembled, among dem were aboyt a dozen chiefs av arapahoes, cheyennes, etc.; de worst av whom wus neva,--long-nose,--an arapahoe wi' wan mince pie, an' dat a pure ganky wan. yer man wus an outlaw, commandin' score or t'airty warriors. al' were seated in a tent, an' dis fella became boisterous, an' wrangled, clamorin' for a general war against al' whites. it wus a most excitin' time. de chiefs stripped almost nip, an' worked themselves up into a deadly craic. at last, black kettle rose up, an' pointin' 'is finger at neva, thus addressed 'im: "you, yer call yerself brave! oi nu waaat yer mean. yer cum 'ere ter kill dees white lads whom oi 'av invited ter cum an' 'av a blather with us. they don't nu waaat yer mean, but oi chucker. yer brave! (sneeringly.) i'll tell yer waaat yer are: yisser gob is wide, so (measurin' a foot wi' 'is 'ands),--your tongue so long (with 'is forefinger markin' six inches on 'is arm),--_an' it 'angs in de middle, 'eadin' both ways_. you're a coward, an' dare not scrap me." here al' de indians gave a grunt av approbashun. "now, go," said yer man, "an' be gone! dis council is banjacked up; oi 'av said it; yer 'ear me words; be gone!"
(Well, when the council assembled, among them were about a dozen chiefs of Arapahoes, Cheyennes, etc.; the worst of whom was Neva,--Long-nose,--an Arapahoe with one eye, and that a very ugly one. He was an outlaw, commanding twenty or thirty warriors. All were seated in a tent, and this fellow became boisterous, and wrangled, clamoring for a general war against all whites. It was a most exciting time. The chiefs stripped almost naked, and worked themselves up into a great excitement. At last, Black Kettle rose up, and pointing his finger at Neva, thus addressed him:
"You, you call yourself brave! I know what you mean. You come here to
kill these white friends whom I have invited to come and have a talk
with us. They don't know what you mean, but I do. You brave!
(sneeringly.) I'll tell you what you are: your mouth is wide, so
(measuring a foot with his hands),--your tongue so long (with his
forefinger marking six inches on his arm),--_and it hangs in the
middle, going both ways_. You're a coward, and dare not fight me."
Here all the Indians gave a grunt of approbation.
"Now, go," said he, "and be gone! This council is broken up; I have said it; you hear my words; be gone!")
An' they slunk aff, completely cowed down, loike a cur dag been whooped!
(And they slunk off, completely cowed down, like a cur dog been whooped!)
“dog-soldiers were wi' dem, well equipped for gollier scrap, an' dees white tren beguiled, wud al' 'av been slain only for mo-ke-ta-va-ta. a "dog-soldier" is a youth who 'as won, gradually, by successful use av the bow an' arrow, a posishun ter use de gun, an' stan' ter de warriors just as our peelers force chucker ter us, in guardin' property, etc. dees boys 'av a steck, called a "coo," on whaich they make a notch for everythin' they kill,--a kind av tally,--an' whaen de coo is av a certain length, they are promoted ter de rank av a "dog-soldier."
(“Dog-soldiers were with them, well equipped for a big fight, and these
white men beguiled, would all have been slain only for Mo-ke-ta-va-ta.
A "dog-soldier" is a youth who has won, gradually, by successful use of
the bow and arrow, a position to use the gun, and stand to the warriors
just as our police force do to us, in guarding property, etc. These
boys have a stick, called a "coo," on which they make a notch for
everything they kill,--a kind of tally,--and when the coo is of a
certain length, they are promoted to the rank of a "dog-soldier.")
INDIANS DON'T BELIEVE HALF WHAT THEY HEAR.
“when several chiefs are allowed ter visit washington on errands for their tribes, ter git more given dem, they tell their people 'oy numerous are de laddies av their deadly owl lad they 'av met on their way, an' waaat big guns they saw, etc. but dohs at 'um believe so'tiz a lie, gotten up by de "white man's medicine," as they call it. al' 'av heard av a young chief whose owl lad gave a steck, on whaich yer man should cut a notch for every white paddy yer man met. but it soon got full, an' yer man thru it away.
De most amusin' experience is towl av lashings av indians 'avin' been induced ter go into a photographer's an' 'av their likenesses taken. the operator asked a chief ter luk at 'is squaw (sittin' for 'er phiz) through de camera. it looks as though wan wus sittin', or bloody standin' on 'is noggin,--reversin' one's posishun. de chief wus pure angry at seein' 'is squaw in such an uncomely attitude, an' yer man 'oofed over an' club 'er. she denied it, but yer man saw it. yer man looked again, an' again she wus turned upside down. yer man said it wus de white man's medicine, an' wud 'av nathin' ter chucker wi' it!”
“When several chiefs are allowed to visit Washington on errands for
their tribes, to get more given them, they tell their people how
numerous are the children of their Great Father they have met on their
way, and what big guns they saw, etc. But those at home believe it is a
lie, gotten up by the "white man's medicine," as they call it. All have
heard of a young chief whose father gave a stick, on which he should
cut a notch for every white man he met. But it soon got full, and he
threw it away.
The most amusing experience is told of a lot of Indians having been
induced to go into a photographer's and have their likenesses taken.
The operator asked a chief to look at his squaw (sitting for her phiz)
through the camera. It looks as though one was sitting, or rather
standing on his head,--reversing one's position. The chief was very
angry at seeing his squaw in such an uncomely attitude, and he walked
over and beat her. She denied it, but he saw it. He looked again, and
again she was turned upside down. He said it was the white man's
medicine, and would have nothing to do with it!”
An Indian boy was asked some questions by one of the Peace
Commissioners about some trouble, and he said to a chief,
"Does the boy tell the truth?"
"Yes," replied the chief, "you may believe what he says; he never saw a
white man before!"
"De army officers are generally lads av de indians. they are certainly, as a rule, jist ter de well-behaved indians, an' ready ter sacrifice their lives in punishin' brutal ones. 'ere are a few examples. general w. s. 'arney, a retired army officer, is among de most noted. his life 'ill be a most interestin' wan, full av adventure wi' de red men. general 'arney graduated at west point whaen nineteen years auld, wus sent oyt ter de frontier, wha yer man 'as lived fifty years. grown gray in their companionship, an' cradled in experience wi' de indian tribes, says "i never knew an indian chief ter break 'is ward!
Major-general george '. thomas, who commanded at camp cooper, texas, sum cock an' 'en years ago, made a forced march av a ton miles, wi' tonne an' score cavalry, ter protect a village av comanche’s from baylor an' tree t'ousan' rangers dat were marchin' ter destroy dem. general thomas wus successful. yer man den marched in rear av de indians 'undreds av miles ter shield dem from de texans. dis gallant an' chivalric officer got away wi' a reputashun dear ter our country. major-general jimmy sedgweck, who felled durin' de war av de rebellion, rendered similar services on de plains, in defense av de arapahoes, at aboyt de seem time; an' colonel edward w. wynkoop, foive years lay-ra, in behalf av de cheyenne’s.
Other officers might be mentioned for similar services, among dem generals zachary taylor, w. s. 'arney, an' alfred '. terry. de last mentioned, two years ago, wi' a strong noggin, 'eart, an' 'an', squelched a conspiracy in montana ter exterminate de crow indians. again, de next summer, flyin' across de plains, an' up de missouri river as fast as steam cud shenanagans 'imself, ter rescue a sioux village from the border settlers. dis splendid officer wus removed from de comman' av de department av dakota, ter make room for 'ancock. captain silas s. soule, in colorado, a few years ago, an' lieutenant philip sheridan, in oregon, cock an' 'en years since, might also be referred ter in dis connecshun, as drawin' their swords in defense av de indians an' de roi."
The army officers are generally friends of the Indians. They are
certainly, as a rule, just to the well-behaved Indians, and ready to
sacrifice their lives in punishing bad ones. Here are a few examples.
General W. S. Harney, a retired army officer, is among the most noted.
His life will be a most interesting one, full of adventure with the red
men. General Harney graduated at West Point when nineteen years old, was sent out to the frontier, where he has lived fifty years. Grown
gray in their companionship, and cradled in experience with the Indian
tribes, says "I never knew an Indian chief to break his word!"
Major-General George H. Thomas, who commanded at Camp Cooper, Texas, some ten years ago, made a forced march of a hundred miles, with one hundred and twenty cavalry, to protect a village of Comanche’s from Baylor and three thousand rangers that were marching to destroy them. General Thomas was successful. He then marched in rear of the Indians hundreds of miles to shield them from the Texans. This gallant and chivalric officer died with a reputation dear to our country.
Major-General John Sedgwick, who fell during the war of the rebellion, rendered similar services on the plains, in defense of the Arapahoe’s, at about the same time; and Colonel Edward W. Wynkoop, five years later, in behalf of the Cheyenne’s.
Other officers might be mentioned for similar services, among them
Generals Zachary Taylor, W. S. Harney, and Alfred H. Terry. The last
mentioned, two years ago, with a strong head, heart, and hand,
squelched a conspiracy in Montana to exterminate the Crow Indians.
Again, the next summer, flying across the plains, and up the Missouri
River as fast as steam could carry him, to rescue a Sioux village from
the border settlers. This splendid officer was removed from the command of the Department of Dakota, to make room for Hancock.
Captain Silas S. Soule, in Colorado, a few years ago, and Lieutenant
Philip Sheridan, in Oregon, ten years since, might also be referred to
in this connection, as drawing their swords in defense of the Indians
and the right.
WHAT SHALL BE DONE?
“the quesshun is, 'oy can de problem be solved, so as ter best protect an' secure de rights av de indians, an' at de seem time promote de welfare av both races?” within de memory av de writer, de tomahawk once reflected de light av burnin' cabins along de tennessee, ohio, illinois, an' missouri rivers, an' de scalping-knives dripped wi' de blud av our border settlers, as we 'av driven de indians back, back, ter de settin' sun! but behauld de change to-day, wha de church 'as missions, an' de red tren are treated loike immortal beings, wi' souls ter be saved?
“The question is, how can the problem be solved, so as to best protect
and secure the rights of the Indians, and at the same time promote the
welfare of both races?”
Within the memory of the writer, the tomahawk once reflected the light of burning cabins along the Tennessee, Ohio, Illinois, and Missouri
Rivers, and the scalping-knives dripped with the blood of our border
settlers, as we have driven the Indians back, back, to the setting sun!
But behold the change to-day, where the church has missions, and the
red men are treated like immortal beings, with souls to be saved.
Mr. Wm. Welsh says of what he saw in Nebraska: "The blanket and bow discarded; the spear is broken, and the hatchet and war-club lie
buried. The skin-lodge (tepee) has given place to the cottage and the
mansion. Among the Santee Sioux, on Niobrara River, in Nebraska, the
Episcopal Church has a mission, where one can see the murderous weapons and the conjuror's charms, by aid of which the medicine-man wrought his fiendish arts.
"That is the _pipe-stem_,--never smoked except on the war-path,--always blackened, being associated with deeds of darkness.
"These," he says, "are laid at the feet of our Christian missionaries,
such as Bishops Whipple and Clarkson, and Rev. Mr. Hinman; where
school-houses abound, and the feet of many thousand little children,
thirsting after knowledge, are seen entering those vestibules of
science; while churches, consecrated to the Christian's God, reflect
for miles the sun's rays, tokens of a brighter light to their darkened
"Dear children, thanks to our holy religion, a few faithful men, taking
their lives in their hands, have gone forth at the church's
call,--bearing precious seed,--struggled and toiled, endured severe
privations, afflictions, and trials, and saved in tears the germs of
light, truth, and hope, which to-day have ripened into a glorious
harvest of intelligence and Christian civilization! Christ said, 'It
must needs be that offenses come, but woe unto that man by whom the
Now, if the wrongs accumulated, done to the poor, ignorant pagan
Indians for years and years since the Mayflower landed her pilgrims on
these shores, are to be redressed in this world (for there is no
repentance for nations after), and if a God of justice so require that
we atone to them, or suffer greater torments from their children, who
shall say it is not a righteous retribution?
If we find them fierce, hostile, and revengeful, if they are cruel, and
sometimes perpetrate atrocities that sicken the soul, and almost
paralyze us with horror,--burning and pillaging,--let us remember that
two hundred and fifty years of injustice, oppression, and wrong, heaped
upon them by _our_ race, with cold, calculating, and relentless
perseverance, have filled them with the passion of revenge and made
them desperate. If you and I, boys, were Indians, we would do just as
Indians do. _Their tender mercies are cruel, but there is a reason why
it is so._
The former Indian agents, on a salary of eighteen hundred dollars a
year, got very rich in a short time. How could they do so but by
swindling the poor Indians, who have no idea of the relative value of
money, or the cost of goods?
Not long since a tribe just above us was paid off their annuities in
shoddy blankets; they were bought back again with whisky, and another
tribe was paid with the same blankets; and one agent took out several
thousand "elastics" (girls know what I mean) to pay the Indians (among
other things), and yet no wild Indian ever wore a stocking!
Again, as the Indian is crowded back beyond the tide of emigration, and
hanging like the froth of the billows upon the very edge is generally a
host of law-defying whites, who introduce among the Indians every form of demoralization and disease with which depraved humanity in its most degraded form is afflicted. These the Indian see more of than anybody else (except the military, whom they look upon mostly as protectors), as good people come along, the Indian must _push on_, still farther toward the setting sun!
A GOOD JOKE BY LITTLE RAVEN.
"Wee raven, an arapahoe chief, laughed 'eartily whaen we towl 'imself somethin' aboyt 'eaven an' 'ell; remarkin', "all gran' men--white an' red men--wud go ter 'eaven; al' brutal tren, white or red, wud go ter hell." inquirin' de cause av 'is merriment whaen yer man 'ad recovered 'is breath, yer man said, "i wus much pleased wi' waaat yer say av dohs two places, an' de kind av people dat 'ill go ter each whaen they cum ter die. so'tiz a gran' noshun,--heap gran',--for if al' de whites are loike the ones oi nu, whaen indian gets ter 'eaven but few whites 'ill trouble him there; juicy much al' go ter t'other place!"
Little Raven, an Arapaho chief, laughed heartily when we told him
something about heaven and hell; remarking, "All good men--white and
red men--would go to heaven; all bad men, white or red, would go to
hell." Inquiring the cause of his merriment when he had recovered his
breath, he said, "I was much pleased with what you say of those two
places, and the kind of people that will go to each when they come to
die. It is a good notion,--heap good,--for if all the whites are like
the ones I know, when Indian gets to heaven but few whites will trouble
him there; pretty much all go to t'other place!"
HOW THE INDIAN IS CHEATED.
"it is true so 'tis, as general 'arney remarked, "better ter board an' lodge dem at de fifth avenue 'otel than ter scrap dem, as a matter av economy." besides depletin' de indian appropriashun fund, voted annually by congress, av millions av dollars, but whaich wus used ter shenanagans on elecshuns, an' de indian got waaat wus left; whaich may be compared ter cheese-parings an' cheese, or skim-milk an' cream. de indian gets de parings an' de skim-milk! the quaker agents, as they are called, are doin' a gran' work, cos they clap dat 'onest dealings are 'ad wi' de annuities paid dem. if the president 'ad done wee else, dis feature av reform 'ill redound to 'is credit forever."
"It is true, as General Harney remarked, "Better to board and lodge them at the Fifth Avenue Hotel than to fight them, as a matter of economy." Besides depleting the Indian appropriation fund, voted annually by Congress, of millions of dollars, but which was used to carry on elections, and the Indian got what was left; which may be compared to cheese-parings and cheese, or skim-milk and cream. The Indian gets the
parings and the skim-milk!
The Quaker agents, as they are called, are doing a good work, because
they see that honest dealings are had with the annuities paid them. If
the President had done little else, this feature of reform will redound
to his credit forever."
BURIAL OF A CHIEF'S DAUGHTER.
"Spotted tail, de noggin chief av de brule sioux, sent a request ter de commandin' officer at fort laramie, sayin' "his bottle av water 'ad got away in powder river country (fifteen days' journey), an' 'ad begged 'er owl lad to 'av 'er grave made among de whites." consent wus given, she 'avin' been known ter de officers for several years, an' 'er death wus broot on by exposure ter de 'ardships av wild indian life, an' also from grief, dat 'er tribe wud go ter war.
Yer man wus met outside de "post" by de officers, wi' de 'onors due 'is stashun. de officer in comman' spoke in words av comfort, sayin', "he sympathized wi' 'imself, an' wus pleased at dis mark av confidence in committin' ter 'is care de remains av 'is loved wane. de deadly spirit had taken 'er, an' yer man never did anythin' except for sum gran' purpose. everythin' shud be prepared for de funeral at sunset, an' as de sun went down, it might remind 'imself av de darkness lef in 'is lodge whaen 'is bottle av water wus taken away; but as de sun wud surely rise again, so she wud rise, an' sum day we wud al' meet in de lan' av de deadly spirit.
De chief exhibited deadly emoshun at dees words, an' shade tears; a thin' quite unusual in an indian. yer man tuk de 'an' av de officer an' said, "this must be a dream for me ter be in such a gran' room, an' surrounded by such as yer. 'av oi been asleep durin' de last four years av 'ardship an' trial, dreamin' dat al' is ter be well again? or is dis rayle? aye, oi clap dat so'tiz,--the bonny day, de sky blue, withoyt a cloud; de wind calm an' still, ter suit de erran' oi came on, an' remind me dat yer offer me peace! we tink we 'av been much wronged, an' entitled ter compensashun for damage done an' distress caused by makin' so many roads through our country, drivin' an' destroyin' de buffalo an' game. me 'eart is pure sad, an' oi cannot talk on business. oi 'ill wait an' clap de counselors de deadly owl lad will send.
De scene, so'tiz added, wus de most impressive oi ever saw, an' al' de indians were awed into silence. a scaffauld wus erected (see print) at the cemetery, an' a coffin wus made. jist before sunset, de body wus carried, followed by de owl lad an' other relatives, wi' chaplain, officers, soldiers, an' indians. de chaplain read de bonny burial-service, interpreted by another ter dem."
(Spotted Tail, the head chief of the Brule Sioux, sent a request to the
commanding officer at Fort Laramie, saying "his daughter had died in
Powder River country (fifteen days' journey), and had begged her father
to have her grave made among the whites." Consent was given, she having been known to the officers for several years, and her death was brought on by exposure to the hardships of wild Indian life, and also from grief, that her tribe would go to war.
He was met outside the "Post" by the officers, with the honors due his
station. The officer in command spoke in words of comfort, saying, "he
sympathized with him, and was pleased at this mark of confidence in
committing to his care the remains of his loved child. The Great Spirit
had taken her, and he never did anything except for some good purpose. Everything should be prepared for the funeral at sunset, and as the sun went down, it might remind him of the darkness left in his lodge when his daughter was taken away; but as the sun would surely rise again, so she would rise, and some day we would all meet in the land of the Great Spirit."
The chief exhibited great emotion at these words, and shed tears; a
thing quite unusual in an Indian. He took the hand of the officer and
said, "This must be a dream for me to be in such a fine room, and
surrounded by such as you. Have I been asleep during the last four
years of hardship and trial, dreaming that all is to be well again? or
is this real? Yes, I see that it is,--the beautiful day, the sky blue,
without a cloud; the wind calm and still, to suit the errand I came on,
and remind me that you offer me peace! We think we have been much
wronged, and entitled to compensation for damage done and distress
caused by making so many roads through our country, driving and
destroying the buffalo and game. My heart is very sad, and I cannot
talk on business. I will wait and see the counselors the Great Father
The scene, it is added, was the most impressive I ever saw, and all the
Indians were awed into silence. A scaffold was erected at the cemetery, and a coffin was made. Just before sunset, the body was carried, followed by the father and other relatives, with chaplain,
officers, soldiers, and Indians. The chaplain read the beautiful
burial-service, interpreted by another to them.)
Rev. A. Wright, post-chaplain, U. S. A.
One said, "I can hardly describe my feelings at witnessing here this
first Christian burial of an Indian, and one of such consideration
among her tribe. The hour, the place, the solemnity, even the
restrained weeping of the mother and other relatives, all combined to
affect me deeply."
It is added: the officers, to gratify Monica's father, each placed an
offering in her coffin. Colonel Maynadier, a pair of gauntlets, to keep
her hands warm (it was winter), Mr. Bullock gave a handsome piece of
red cassimere to cover the coffin. To complete the Indian ceremony, her
two milk-white ponies were killed and their heads and tails nailed on
the coffin. These ponies the Indians supposed she would ride again in
the hunting-grounds whither she had gone.
AN INDIAN RAID ON SIDNEY STATION, UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD.
"In de month av april, 1868, while returnin' from de east, we took dinner at sidney stashun, on de railroad, four ton an' fourteen miles west av omaha, at noon. while we were dare, two freight conductors broot in their trains an' dined at de seem time we did, an' whaen we started they were on de platform an' said good-by ter us. they concluded ter go oyt a fishin', a mile or two from de settlement, behind wan av de bluffs. we 'ad not lef on our way ter cheyenne more than aboyt an 'our, whaen we learned by telegraph at "antelope station" (thirty-seven miles), dat a ban' av score or t'airty sioux indians 'ad cum suddenly upon de two conductors, named cahoone an' kinney, an', after a severe conflict, 'ad shot both through wi' arrows, an' scalped wan av dem (cahoone), besides killin' sum av de railroad 'ands at work repairin' de road near by de scene av conflict. presently we met a speshal train, consistin' av engine an' caboose-car, comin' wi' tremendous speed,--one mile a minute,--containin' dr. latham, surgeon av de railroad from cheyenne. it seems dat de soldiers--a wee company--were completely gobsmacked, an' not bein' mounted, cud only protect de stashun, but cud not folly up de indians ter punish dem for their audacity.
Dare were nearly two ton an' fifty people, includin' tonne infantry soldiers, at de station; an' de alarm av "indians" being given, de whole populashun turned oyt wi' such arms as they cud lay 'owl av. de sight av so many persons disconcerted de indians, an' they checked their 'orses within a respectable distance av de stashun. aboyt two ton shorts were fired,--many av dem in de wildest manner, an' mostly 'urtin' nobody.
De indians rode roun' de upper side av sidney--_i.e._ west--after de affray wi' de conductors, an' attacked de section-men, circling roun' an' roun' (as usual in their mode av indian warfare, ter draw out the fire av their enemies, till they exhaust their ammunition), till they 'ad killed several av de stoney broke irishmen at work. dees tren 'ad with dem a 'and-car, an' de 'eadbombadare 'ad a rifle wi' 'imself, an' only wan charge or cartridge in 'is gun. yer man did master yer man cud, 'owever, by jumpin' on de car an' takin' aim at 'is enemies, an' keepin' de gun pointed towards dem, while de tren worked de 'and-car safe into sidney stashun. yer man escaped wi' 'is life, an' several av 'is comrades.
Dees two conductors 'ad aboyt seven arrows shot into each av dem, several 'eadin' roi through their bodies, an' whaich 'ad ter be banjacked aff ter draw dem oyt. one--thomas cahoone--was scalped twice, on de top an' back av 'is noggin. de other--william kinney--kept 'is captor at bay by a pistol yer man 'ad, an' thus aimin' at de indian, saved 'is 'air. both were broot up carefully in de caboose-car ter cheyenne, an' next day oi saw dem under dr. latham's treatment. al' tart dat both wud surely die, but both got well; an' de wan who wus scalped is nigh livin' at a stashun on de union pacific railroad. so'tiz a whitie operashun ter be scalped, an' few survive it. but, t'anks ter de surgeon's skill, dees tren are livin', an' fale pure much loike taking vengeance on their tormentors,--_if they ever catch them_!"
In the month of April, 1868, while returning from the East, we took
dinner at Sidney Station, on the railroad, four hundred and fourteen
miles west of Omaha, at noon. While we were there, two freight
conductors brought in their trains and dined at the same time we did,
and when we started they were on the platform and said good-by to us.
They concluded to go out a fishing, a mile or two from the settlement,
behind one of the bluffs. We had not left on our way to Cheyenne more
than about an hour, when we learned by telegraph at "Antelope Station" (thirty-seven miles), that a band of twenty or thirty Sioux Indians had come suddenly upon the two conductors, named Cahoone and Kinney, and, after a severe conflict, had shot both through with arrows, and scalped one of them (Cahoone), besides killing some of the railroad hands at work repairing the road near by the scene of conflict. Presently we met a special train, consisting of engine and caboose-car, coming with
tremendous speed,--one mile a minute,--containing Dr. Latham, surgeon of the railroad from Cheyenne. It seems that the soldiers--a small
company--were completely surprised, and not being mounted, could only protect the station, but could not follow up the Indians to punish them for their audacity.
There were nearly two hundred and fifty people, including one hundred infantry soldiers, at the station; and the alarm of "Indians" being
given, the whole population turned out with such arms as they could lay hold of. The sight of so many persons disconcerted the Indians, and
they checked their horses within a respectable distance of the station.
About two hundred shots were fired,--many of them in the wildest
manner, and mostly hurting nobody.
The Indians rode round the upper side of Sidney--_i.e._ west--after the
affray with the conductors, and attacked the section-men, circling
round and round (as usual in their mode of Indian warfare, to draw out
the fire of their enemies, till they exhaust their ammunition), till
they had killed several of the poor Irishmen at work. These men had
with them a hand-car, and the boss had a rifle with him, and only one
charge or cartridge in his gun. He did the best he could, however, by
jumping on the car and taking aim at his enemies, and keeping the gun
pointed towards them, while the men worked the hand-car safe into
Sidney Station. He escaped with his life, and several of his comrades.
These two conductors had about seven arrows shot into each of them,
several going right through their bodies, and which had to be broken
off to draw them out. One--Thomas Cahoone--was scalped twice, on the top and back of his head. The other--William Kinney--kept his captor at bay by a pistol he had, and thus aiming at the Indian, saved his hair.
Both were brought up carefully in the caboose-car to Cheyenne, and next day I saw them under Dr. Latham's treatment. All thought that both
would surely die, but both got well; and the one who was scalped is now living at a station on the Union Pacific Railroad. It is a terrible
operation to be scalped, and few survive it. But, thanks to the
surgeon's skill, these men are living, and feel very much like taking
vengeance on their tormentors,--_if they ever catch them_!
WHY DO INDIANS SCALP THEIR ENEMIES?
"i 'av been a gran' dayle flummoxed ter nu de origin av dis custom, av always scalpin' a foe in battle, both among themselves an' in milling white people. a negro is never scalped by de indians. in conversing with major a. s. burt, av 9th united states infantry, at our post, who has 'ad much experience among de indians on de plains, oi learn some things whaich gie a clue ter de matter, whaich agree wi' al' oi can hear. yer man says dat each indian wears a "scalp-lock" (see engraving), which is a long tuft av 'air, into whaich de indian inserts 'is medicine, whaich consists generally av a few quills av eagle's feathers. this "_medicine_" is simply a "_charm_," as we call it, gotten by purchase av de medicine-man av de tribe. de medicine-man is de most influential paddy in each tribe. yer man professes ter be able ter conjure, by his arts an' influence wi' de deadly spirit, certain articles, whaich he sells ter de indians av 'is tribe. dis "medicine" de superstitious believe 'ill cure diseases, an' 'elp 'imself against 'is enemy in battle. hence, in scalpin' a fallen foe, de victor deprives 'imself av 'is charm, an' shows it in triumph, as a token av 'is skill in battle. if yer visit an indian in 'is tent, an' ask 'imself ter show yer 'is "medicine," yer man will chucker so, if yer pay 'imself in such things as yer man needs ter make therewith a feast, both for 'imself an' an offerin' ter 'is medicine idol; but as the idol canny ayte, it goes t'be sure into de gut av de live indian!
De indian keeps 'is "medicine" 'ung up in 'is tent, an' prays ter it,--dreams aboyt it,--an' if 'is dream is av gran' luk, yer man acts accordingly. dis applies ter 'untin', 'eadin' on war expedishuns, etc.; in short, so'tiz 'is sort av saint, ter whaich yer man pays idolatrous worship. another idea: de indian believes dat de spirit av de enemy yer man slays enters into 'imself, an' yer man is thereby made de stronger; 'ence _he slays al' dat yer man can_. oi 'av seen young warriors in de streets av cheyenne, wi' their 'air reachin' down almost ter their 'eels; an' al' along it ye'd clap strung roun' pieces av silver, from de size av a silver dollar ter a tea-saucer; each wan av whaich wus a tell-tale av de number av de scalps de young fella 'ad taken. it wus waaat de ladies wud call a "waterfall!"
Speakin' av dis, as revealin' de pride av indians in showin' their prowess, oi learned av a _young buck_, comin' into a post an' futtin' it roun', dressed in de top av indian fashion,--_i.e._ wi' paint on 'is face, feathers in 'is 'air, an' brass ornaments on 'is leggings. dees young fellows put on al' de gewgaws they can ter make a show av importance. well, yer man finally 'oofed into de post-trader's store, an' asked mr. bullock if yer man didn't tink it made de officers _faint_ whaen they saw 'imself? "yes," said yer man, "i tink ye'd better take aff sum av your things (pointin' ter 'is trappings), they 'ill scare somebody."
"I have been a good deal puzzled to know the origin of this custom, of
always scalping a foe in battle, both among themselves and in fighting
white people. A negro is never scalped by the Indians. In conversing
with Major A. S. Burt, of 9th United States Infantry, at our post, who
has had much experience among the Indians on the plains, I learn some
things which give a clue to the matter, which agree with all I can
hear. He says that each Indian wears a "scalp-lock" (see engraving),
which is a long tuft of hair, into which the Indian inserts his
medicine, which consists generally of a few quills of eagle's feathers.
This "_medicine_" is simply a "_charm_," as we call it, gotten by
purchase of the medicine-man of the tribe. The medicine-man is the most influential man in each tribe. He professes to be able to conjure, by
his arts and influence with the Great Spirit, certain articles, which
he sells to the Indians of his tribe. This "medicine" the superstitious
believe will cure diseases, and help him against his enemy in battle.
Hence, in scalping a fallen foe, the victor deprives him of his charm,
and shows it in triumph, as a token of his skill in battle. If you
visit an Indian in his tent, and ask him to show you his "medicine," he
will do so, if you pay him in such things as he needs to make therewith
a feast, both for himself and an offering to his medicine idol; but as
the idol can't eat, it goes of course into the stomach of the live
The Indian keeps his "medicine" hung up in his tent, and
prays to it,--dreams about it,--and if his dream is of good luck,
he acts accordingly. This applies to hunting, going on war
expeditions, etc.; in short, it is his sort of saint, to which he
pays idolatrous worship.
Another idea: the Indian believes that the spirit of the enemy he slays
enters into himself, and he is thereby made the stronger; hence _he
slays all that he can_. I have seen young warriors in the streets of
Cheyenne, with their hair reaching down almost to their heels; and all
along it you'd see strung round pieces of silver, from the size of a
silver dollar to a tea-saucer; each one of which was a tell-tale of the
number of the scalps the young fellow had taken. It was what the ladies
would call a "waterfall!"
Speaking of this, as revealing the pride of Indians in showing their
prowess, I learned of a _young buck_, coming into a post and walking
round, dressed in the top of Indian fashion,--_i.e._ with paint on his
face, feathers in his hair, and brass ornaments on his leggings. These
young fellows put on all the gewgaws they can to make a show of
importance. Well, he finally walked into the post-trader's store, and
asked Mr. Bullock if he didn't think it made the officers _faint_ when
they saw him? "Yes," said he, "I think you'd better take off some of
your things (pointing to his trappings), they will scare somebody."
INDIAN BOY'S EDUCATION.
"Whaen an indian gets ter be eighteen years auld, so'tiz expected dat yer man will strike oyt for 'imself, an' chucker sum act ter show 'is bravery; an' that begins in strikin' somebody ter kill dem (a white or indian av a hostile tribe), an' ter knuk stock, a 'orse, or mule, or cattle. no young warrior can git a struggle an' strife till yer man 'as taken de scalp av a white man or indian, an' 'av 'ot a 'orse or pony. dis bein' a law av de sioux, so in proporshun as yer man scalps an' steals 'orses so does 'is number av wives increase, an' de greater a warrior does yer man becum. in short, yer man becums "a big 'eap chief." waaat ter us becums a murder or theft,--the pure first act av a young indian,--in 'is own tribe is a grate an' praiseworthy deed. so yer clap waaat blud 'as been shade, an' other acts av cruelty caused by spotted tail, red cloud, an' others, who 'av imbrued their 'ands in de blud av innocent victims wi' a fiendish delight dat savages only nu an' take pleasure in.
As de arrows tell av de tribe ter whaich they belong,--colored near de end,--green for de sioux, blue, cheyenne, red or brown, arrapahoes, black feathers, crow,--so de tribe ter whaich an indian murderer belongs is known by de method (usually) by whaich de victim is scalped. de cheyennes remove a piece not larger than a silver dollar from immediately over de lef ear; de arrapahoes take de seem from over the roi ear. others take from de crown, forehead, or nape av de neck. de utes take de entire scalp from ear ter ear, an' from forehead to nape av greg."
(When an Indian gets to be eighteen years old, it is expected that he
will strike out for himself, and do some act to show his bravery; and
that begins in striking somebody to kill them (a white or Indian of a
hostile tribe), and to steal stock, a horse, or mule, or cattle.
No young warrior can get a wife till he has taken the scalp of a white
man or Indian, and have stolen a horse or pony. This being a law of the
Sioux, so in proportion as he scalps and steals horses so does his
number of wives increase, and the greater a warrior does he become. In
short, he becomes "a big heap chief." What to us becomes a murder or theft,--the very first act of a young Indian,--in his own tribe is a
great and praiseworthy deed. So you see what blood has been shed, and
other acts of cruelty caused by Spotted Tail, Red Cloud, and others,
who have imbrued their hands in the blood of innocent victims with a
fiendish delight that savages only know and take pleasure in.
As the arrows tell of the tribe to which they belong,--colored near the
end,--green for the Sioux, blue, Cheyenne, red or brown, Arrapahoes,
black feathers, Crow,--so the tribe to which an Indian murderer belongs
is known by the method (usually) by which the victim is scalped. The
Cheyennes remove a piece not larger than a silver dollar from
immediately over the left ear; the Arrapahoes take the same from over
the right ear. Others take from the crown, forehead, or nape of the
neck. The Utes take the entire scalp from ear to ear, and from forehead
to nape of neck.)
"A grocer in julesburg 'ad married a squaw; after awhile she lef 'imself an' joined 'er tribe. comin' dat way again, she came an' looked in upon 'er former 'usban' at de back-door, while al' 'er relashuns fifty starin' raun ter clap if she wud be welcomed back again. but yer man tuk naw notice av 'er. wan av 'is lads said ter 'imself, "joe, why don't yer go an' call 'er in, yer nu yer are glad ter clap 'er back again; yer certainly want 'er?" "no, naw," said yer man, "i ain't gonna make any fuss over 'er at al'. if i chucker, de whole shower av savages av 'er relashuns, uncles, aunts, an' cousins, will cum in ter shake 'ands, an' congratulate me wi' 'how, 'oy,' expectin' each wan ter 'av a quid av sugar. naw, naw, yer don't catch me."
A grocer in Julesburg had married a squaw; after awhile she left him
and joined her tribe. Coming that way again, she came and looked in
upon her former husband at the back-door, while all her relations stood
staring around to see if she would be welcomed back again. But he took no notice of her. One of his friends said to him, "Joe, why don't you
go and call her in, you know you are glad to see her back again; you
certainly want her?"
"No, no," said he, "I ain't going to make any fuss over her at all. If
I do, the whole crowd of her relations, uncles, aunts, and cousins,
will come in to shake hands, and congratulate me with 'How, how,'
expecting each one to have a pound of sugar. No, no, you don't catch