Part 9: Teaching in Trump’s America


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Classroom lectures and activities that get students to hold a mirror up to themselves are always helpful. It allows students to embrace who they are but it also enables them to begin to think about how their journey is different from those around them. I have a colleague who shared this incredible activity with me, you may have heard variations of it. Students are placed into groups and from there they are given supplies and asked to draw a picture. One group has all the supplies needed to complete this task. They have markers of every imaginable color, they have paper, stickers, etc. The other group has a couple markers and a smaller sheet of paper. The last group has a single crayon and two sheets of paper that they will somehow have to conjoin for it to be large enough, as per the assignment guidelines. As they work, you the educator work as a confederate, giving the highest praise to the first group. The second group receives minimal praise while the last group gets constructive criticism that is negligent to accept their disadvantage. After the drawings are presented ask the students how they felt working on this assignment. Usually the students in the last group are fairly upset they weren’t able to showcase their best work, in some instances they won’t even finish the drawing because they feel hopeless that they will be able to succeed. Interestingly, the first group that had the most materials fails to notice that the other groups were given different supplies. It’s a great way to introduce privilege and help students understand how blinding it can be.

I always say that this is the first step because as we know when it comes to identity whether we are in the nondominant or the dominant group we were not always self-aware. There was a moment or series of interactions that exposed this to us. What we do after this is pivotal.

The following are the steps that occur when we are developing our identities. I have complied it in a chart but the content comes from, Communication in the Real World: An Introduction to Communication Studies an open source textbook that you can access in full from the following site,

Nondominant Identity Development

4 stages of nondominant identity N. Martin and Thomas K. Nakayama, Intercultural Communication in Contexts, 5th ed. (Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill, 2010), 173–76.

Stage 1

Unexamined Identity

Marked both by a lack of awareness of or lack of interest in one’s identity. This stage ends as a person’s lack of interest in their own identity is replaced by an investment in a dominant group’s identity.

Stage 2


When an individual internalizes the values and norms of the dominant group. This is done in an effort to avoid being perceived as different. Individuals may attempt to assimilate into the dominant culture by changing their appearance, nonverbal behaviors, their verbal and vocal practices, their language, or even their name.

Stage 3

Resistance & Separation

An individual with a nondominant identity may shift away from the conformity of the previous stage to engage in actions that challenge the dominant identity group. Individuals in this stage may also actively try to separate themselves from the dominant group, choosing instead to limit their interaction with those who share their nondominant identity.

Stage 4


This marks a period where individuals are able to reach a balance between their nondominant identities but also appreciating the other identities as well. While anger in regards to their mistreatment from the dominant identity members may persist this frustration towards prejudice and discrimination is refocused. For instance to work towards social justice.

Dominant Identity Development

Dominant identity development consists of five stages. Judith N. Martin and Thomas K. Nakayama,Intercultural Communication in Contexts, 5th ed. (Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill, 2010), 177–80.

Stage 1


Groups may be aware of the differences between themselves and marganizlezed gorup members but they may not understand that there is a hierarchy or they don’t believe the role they play in it.While nondominant group members must understand their identity Due to Prejudice or discriminaiton, They experience, dominant Group members can remain in the unexamined stage for a long time.

Stage 2


The dominant Group Member will passively or actively accept people are treated differently than others but doesn’t do anythign either internally or externally to address it. It simply seems like the norm. Things like, “I know that racism exists, but my parents taught me to be a good person and see everyone as equal.” While This is a nice sentiment, it takes more than viewing everyone as equal to change anything.People in this stage May also insist that “minorities are exaggerating their circumstances or whining and just need to work harder” or “get over it.” People will reamin in this stage until they are repeatedly presented with infomraiton that challenges their beliefs.

Stage 2

Resistance Stage

acknowledges the advantages they are given and feels shameful and gulity about it. In order to move on from this stage one must do more than wallow or try to reach out to nondominant group members to aplogoize instead, sharing what they’ve learned with others who share their dominant identity allows them to progress to the next stage.

Stage 3


revise negative views of their identity held in the previous stage and begin to acknowledge their privilege and try to use the power they are granted to work for They realize that they can claim their dominant identity as heterosexual, able-bodied, male, white, and so on, and perform their identity in ways that counter norms.

Stage 5


people can integrate their dominant identity into all aspects of their life, finding opportun to educate others about privilege while also being a responsive ally to people in nondominant identities. (becoming a true ally)


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